## Control System Implementation

Previous sections have explained some of the techniques whereby control algorithms can be designed. The system and controller dynamics have been described in continuous time in terms of the Laplace operator, s. While it is possible to implement a continuous-time controller, for example using analogue circuitry, the use of digital controllers is now almost universal. The greater flexibility of digital systems is a factor here: simply by making software changes, the control logic can be changed completely.

A consequence of using digital control is that the control actions are calculated and updated on a discrete time step, rather than in continuous time. Control algorithms designed in continuous time must therefore be converted to discrete time for implementation in a digital controller. It is also possible to design controllers in discrete time, if the linearized model of the turbine is first discretized.

The following sections briefly describe some of the practical issues involved in implementing a control algorithm in a real digital controller. Once again, the reader is referred to standard control theory texts for more detailed treatments.

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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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