CHAPTER

1. Wind map value for Panhandle of Texas is class 4-5, 400-600 W/m2 at 50 m.

2. Average wind speed is 8-9 m/s at 50 m height.

4. North areas off of United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark.

5. Southern Nicaragua.

6. Offshore of Corpus Christi.

8. Tubular tower, 13 cm in diameter. Anemometer should be placed six diameters away, 80 or more cm.

9. Lattice tower is 1.5 m on a side. Anemometer should be placed two to three diameters away, 3 to 4.5 m.

10. Tower is 4 m on a side. Anemometer should be placed two diameters away, 8 m. Practical length is 1-2 m. An 8 m away mounting will be difficult and expensive, so people do not always adhere to the guidelines.

11. Propeller anemometers have to be perpendicular to the wind. Because of the turbulence in the wind farm and being close to the wind turbines, the propeller anemometers overestimated the power coefficient (recorded lower wind speeds than actual values), so they were replaced with cup anemometers.

12. Deciduous trees in our region (High Plains of United States) are bent toward the north and northeast due to spring and early summer winds from the south and southwest. Because we know the answer, they indicate winds of around 6 m/s.

13. At the present time they are too expensive.

14. Measure wind speed and direction at three levels at six sites. Cost will run from $150,000 to $400,000.

If you were taking data at one location (15 to 20 square mile area), your O&M costs are not as high. If you are taking data across a region or state, then the costs are much higher. If you could use some existing towers, that would reduce the costs. I went to the NRG website, www.nrgsystems.com, to get cost estimates. Also in the final analysis, I would round off values to the nearest $10 or even $100.

If you go to 60 m towers or truss towers for hub heights (80 to 100 m), installed costs are quite a bit higher.

50 m tower, NRG-NOW CELLogger = $14,450. 2 anemometers, 1 wind direction at each level; 10, 25, 50 m.

For 2-year project estimate, $230,000 (2008 $).

Project Management

Man-month

s/month

s

Senior

4

7,000

28,000

Junior

6

5,000

30,000

Secretary/clerical

3

2,000

6,000

Subtotal

64,000

Equipment

NRG-NOW replacement

6

14,450

86,700

Anemometers

24

285

6,840

Wind vane

8

205

1,640

Temperature

3

195

585

Data logger

1

135G

1,350

Mounting booms

24

200

4,800

Gin pole

1

700

700

GPS

1

200

200

Reader

1

60

60

(Continued)

Project Management

Man-month

$/month

$

PC base

1

800

800

PC data analysis

1

1500

1,500

Wire, $2.50/m

360

2.50

900

Shipping

1,500

Subtotal

107,575

Installation

Erection, 5 man-days/site

36

140

5,040

100 miles to site, 4 x 4 pickup, $0.60/mile

1200

0.60

720

Operation and maintenance

Scheduled, 1/year per site

Personnel, man-days

15

140

2,100

Pickup, miles

2000

0.60

1,200

Unscheduled, 2/years per site

Personnel, man-days

50

140

7,000

Pickup, miles

4800

0.60

2,880

Decommission

Personnel, man-days

18

140

2,520

Pickup, miles

1200

0.60

720

Miscellaneous, storage, disks, etc.

3,000

Subtotal

25,180

Data Collection and Analysis

5 man-days/month

120

140

3,000

DIRECT COST

199,755

Indirect cost 15%*direct costs

29,963

TOTAL

229,718

15. Amount of storage needed:

a. 1 h avg.* 24 h*365 days = 8,760 data points per channel* 12 channels = 105,120 data points per year b. 1 min avg. * 60 min. * 24 h * 365 days = 525,000 data points per channel 12 channels = 6,307,200 data points per year

1 min avg. would use sixty times more storage yearly. Of course, you know that, as there are 60 min in an hour.

Data cards can store more data than previously, but you need to know how much data you can store before they have to be changed (see Section 4.1.4). The manufacturer will provide guidelines for averaging times and amount of data that can be stored on their data cards.

16. Meteorologists say that it takes 30 years to determine climate data. There are national (and some other) met stations with 30 years or more of data; however, that data is generally at 10 m height for airports. What the wind industry would like is baseline data at 40 to 50 m, and now with bigger turbines they would like some data at hub heights to 100 m. The problem is cost and time. It is difficult to obtain funding for a multiple-year program to obtain wind resource assessment for 40 to 60 m towers. Wind farms operate and accumulate data over years; however, there might be a problem of making private data available to the public.

My opinion: Would like 4 to 5 years of data on 50 to 60 m towers (wind speed and wind direction at 10, 30, and 50 or 60 m).

17. Fifty-meter pole tower with gin pole, $12,500; labor, $1,000; travel expenses, $1,000. Estimated total is $14,500.

18. Fifty meter trust tower, guyed (Rohn 45G), $3,000; labor, $4,000 (have to assemble tower sections); travel expenses, $2,000 (need truck or assemble on site, which means more labor at the site). Use crane to raise tower, $3,000. Estimated total is $12,000.

19. One-hundred-meter trust tower, guyed (Rohn 55G), $7,000; labor, $10,000, travel expenses, $5,000; crane, $5,000, power (generator and gas), $3,000. Estimated total is $30,000.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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