Livestock Water Requirement

Animal

Liter/Day

Cattle, beef Cattle, dairy Camels

Sheep and goats

Swine

Horses

Chickens (100) Turkeys (100) Evaporation

40-50 60-75 40-90 8-10 10-20 40-50 8-15 15-25 800-1,200

3. Hydraulic power: volume times dynamic head

4. Wind resource

5. Comparison of other power sources

6. Design considerations

The design process has other considerations in the final analysis: economics, operation and maintenance, institutional issues, equipment life, and future demand (addition or expansion of the system).

The average daily demand (m3/day) is estimated for the month of high demand or the wind design month (month with lowest average wind speed). Also, the demand must take into account any growth during the design period, which should be at least 10 years. The water demand for livestock can be up to 90 L/day (Table 10.8). Evaporation from an open storage tank, especially in windy and dry areas, will require even more water. Also, animals will only travel a limited distance from the water source, so there needs to be one water source per 250 ha to harvest grassland. If the water supply and grassland are communal, then there is the distinct possibility that the growth in the size of the herds will result in overgrazing, especially close to the water supply.

The domestic water depends on number of people, usage, and type of service (Table 10.9). What is considered necessary in some countries or regions would be considered a luxury in others. In addition, people will consume more water during hot, dry periods. Local water consumption is the best guide; however, remember that usage per person will probably increase if water availability improves. Village water supply includes clinics, stores, schools, and other institutions. Growth in demand will depend primarily on water availability, growth in size of herds or flocks, and growth in population for villages. Again, the growth in population should be estimated from present local trends.

Water demand for irrigation (low or high volume) will depend on local conditions, season, crops, and evapotranspiration. These data are generally available from regional or national government agricultural agencies.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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