Problems

1. If there is a wind map for your nation, what is the wind speed or wind power potential near your location?

2. What is the average wind speed offshore in the ocean south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts? Use ocean wind data or Figure 4.1.

3. For South Dakota (Figure 4.2), make an educated guess of percent area with wind class 5 and above.

4. For the offshore wind map for Europe (Figure 4.7), what regions have the highest wind power potential?

5. What region of Nicaragua has the best wind power potential? Go to NREL, international wind maps.

6. What offshore location for Texas has the highest wind speeds at 10 m height? Use Figure 4.6 or map (reference 22).

7. Go to www.windmap.org. Stateline wind farm is located near the boundary of Oregon and Washington. The Columbia River forms the boundary as it comes out of Washington. Just east of where it crosses the border, the boundary is straight. The wind farm is located there, primarily in Oregon. Go to the Oregon wind map. What is the highest wind class for the project area? On a large map, zoom in once. Can you obtain a larger image by going to the interactive tool on the left navigation bar?

8. You have a tall tower, 13 cm in diameter. How far should the anemometer be placed away from the tower?

9. You are installing anemometers on an existing guyed lattice tower (three sides, each side is 1.5 m wide) for radio communication. How far should the anemometer be placed away from the tower?

10. You are installing anemometers on a stand-alone, lattice tower for radio communication. The tower has three sides, and each side is 4 m wide at 10 m height. Compare the recommended length with a practical length of the boom (mounting pipe or bracket).

11. Why were the propeller anemometers for horizontal wind measurements on the turbulent characterization tower (Figure 4.12) replaced with cup anemometers?

12. Are there any examples of vegetation indicators of wind in your region? What wind speed do they indicate?

13. With a laser system for measuring wind speed, you do not need a tower. What is the reason for not employing a laser system?

14. You want to measure the wind speeds and direction at three levels (10, 25, and 50 m) at six sites (dispersed across your state) for 2 years. Estimate the cost for equipment and people (installation, data collection, and data analysis). You may choose any type of data logger, tower, data retrieval, and analysis.

15. Contrast the amount of storage needed for data between the following: (a) 1 h average and standard deviation (sample rate, 1 Hz) of sixteen channels, 1 year of data, and (b) 1 min average and standard deviation (sample rate, 5 Hz) for sixteen channels, 1 year of data.

16. How many years should data be taken to establish a database to which shorter-term data for wind farms can be referenced? In other words, a database to be used for a wind map for a large region or state.

17. Estimate the cost for installation for a 50 m pole tower, guyed. For travel costs, estimate difficulty for getting to the site.

18. Estimate the cost for installation for a 50 m lattice tower, guyed (example, Rohn 25G or 45G); include travel. For travel costs, estimate difficulty for getting to the site. For installation of the lattice tower, are you going to use a crane or an attached gin pole?

19. Estimate the cost for installation for a 100 m lattice tower, guyed; include travel. For travel costs, estimate difficulty for getting to the site. For this lattice tower you are going to use a crane. Remember, you now have to have lights per FFA regulations, which means additional cost of power for remote locations.

20. Compare wind resource instrumentation (cost, sample rate, data storage, and data analysis) from two different companies.

21. Are there any shareware programs for wind resource analysis?

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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Responses

  • Topias Ruotsalainen
    How far should anemometers be placed on guyed lattice tower 1.5 m on a side?
    7 years ago
  • WILIBALD
    How far should the anemometer be placed away from the tower?
    7 years ago

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