Engine Jacobs Lma Hp

Kellett Autogiros

Pari of Kellett VC-1 assembly Une. One ùutogiro is nearly complete.

Kellett Autogyro

Kellett YC-J Autogiro assembly line of five autogiros.

(Kettelt Photo)

Kellett YC-J Autogiro assembly line of five autogiros.

(Kettelt Photo)

Kayaba Autogyro Plans

Kel/rit's JCD-I prototype in 1952 after being "rescued" by the author with a very large assist from the American Legion Pilots Post at the request of Wallace Kellett, Kellett's president. It was to be restored but Wallace Kellett's untimely death put an end to that project,

(Kellett Photo)

Kel/rit's JCD-I prototype in 1952 after being "rescued" by the author with a very large assist from the American Legion Pilots Post at the request of Wallace Kellett, Kellett's president. It was to be restored but Wallace Kellett's untimely death put an end to that project,

(Kellett Photo)

droop stops at the hub. Blade dampers now inside the spar working on a cam at the hub kept the blades spaced equally from each other. As the blades tried to lead or lag the damper came into play returning the blade to the proper spacing, The rotor hub was neat and simple. The runup gears were now inside a housing containing oil for lubrication.

The rotor support was simple in design. Only one large, round, heat-treated steel tube carried the flight loads to the fuselage. A streamlined aluminum fairing housed the support or pylon tube as well as the vertical drive shaft. At the bottom of the shaft within the cowl, a rotor brake was provided to stop the rotor after landing. The rest of the rotor spinup system consisted of a power takeoff housing on the back of the engine. A leather-lined cone clutch permitted the engine to be engaged slowly and smoothly and quickly disengaged before takeoff. The horizontal shaft passed through the firewall to an intermediate gearbox where the drive angle was changed from horizontal to vertical. On the output side of this box was an overrunning clutch to permit the rotor to turn if the engine clutch should fail to disengage on takeoff. A torque-limiting shear pin fastened the vertical shaft to the gear box. The pin would shear if excess torque was applied to the rotor on runup. If the pin should fail when the rotor was near takeoff rpm, a takeoff could still be made. The rotor rpm would increase on the takeoff run. A pin could be easily replaced when back on the ground.

The fuselage was built up of gas welded steel tubing heavily faired with light weight aluminum bows and longitudinal members. The forward part was covered with sheet aluminum. The fuel tanks formed the fairing and covering for the sides of the fuselage at the front cockpit. The rest of the fuselage was fabric covered.

The horizontal tail was assembled from solid spruce spars with built-up ribs with cap strips and plywood webs. The stabilizers were internally braced with steel rods. The leading edge was made from a round steel tube and covered with plywood from the leading edge to the front spar, top and bottom. The tip and trailing edge was formed from a round steel tube that was gradually formed into a streamline shape as it left the rear spar. A handhold was provided in the tip aft of the front spar for ground handling.

The rudder and vertical tail surfaces were welded steel tube assemblies. Al! surfaces were fabric covered and doped.

The landing gear was a wide tread type with Bendix air and oil shock struts. The tires were 8:00 x 15 with 6 inch Hayes Industries mechanical brakes. The tail wheel was a 10 inch with a swivel device that could be locked in the steer-able position. The tail shock strut was an air-oil type. The rest of the tail group consisted of a small rudder carrying the fuselage side shape to a rounded ending. The horizontal tail was ground-adjustable. The left side was installed with the airfoil in its normal upright position while the right hand side had the airfoil inverted. This imparted a twist to the fuselage which directly opposed the propeller torque. As power was applied and the air stream from the propeller increased, the right side wanted to "lift down" while the left lifted in the "up" position. When the power and air stream was reduced, the lift reduced. The adjustment also permitted various angles of incidence to be selected. They could be used to compensate for c.g changes to the autogiro through its life as well as to compensate for propeller torque. Because the rotor was not driven in flight, there was no rotor torque transmitted to the fuselage. Two vertical fixed surfaces were attached to the bottom of the horizontal stabilizers where there was no risk of their being struck by the rotor. The horizontal stabilizers were supported by two aluminum streamlined struts on either side extending down to the bottom longerons.

Cockpit controls were the same as those found in any open cockpit airplane with certain additions. The rear cockpit control stick was provided with a stick lock where the stick was placed when the rotor was at rest or below approximately 100 rpm. The stick was pushed forward into the lock soon after landing and was kept in the lock while starting the rotor until about 100 rpm was reached (flight rotor rpm was 210). There was no danger of getting the stick into the lock in flight because the lock was at the extreme forward end of the stick travel.

A clutch lever was located just under the throttle on the left side of the cockpit so that no time was lost in getting the throttle wide open when the clutch was released.

Rudder pedals were used to steer the tail wheel while on the ground. In flight the pedals would aid in making a tighter turn although they were not needed for a normal turn. When the stick is rolled either way and the autogiro ban ed, it would turn in that direction. Rolling out a turn could be done in the same way witho adverse yaw.

The KD-1 controlled easily with an extrem ly light touch and was quite sensitive. Loi gitudinal and lateral bungees were provided 1 relieve control loads caused by an unbalance autogiro. The pilot occupied the rear seat an (he observer or passenger sat up front, Th cockpit had an altimeter, airspeed indicatt tachometers for engine and rotor, compass, c temperature and oil pressure gauges. Glai sight gauges on the rear side of the fuel tanl provided fuel quantity information. Thei could only be seen from the rear cockpit.

A Jacobs L4MB7 delivered 225 hp through fixed-pitch Curtiss-Reed propeller. A Heywoo air starter cranked the engine. CAA Certific; tion was obtained. Only one KD-1 was built.

Specifications

Gross weight 2250 lb;

Empty weight 1315 lb:

Useful load 935 lb; Fuel 44 gal, {in two tanks

Oil 4 ga Performance not available

Prototype Kellett KD-1 taking off from the street in Washington, D.C (Kellett Photo)

Airplane 1934 Cockpit Gauges
Kellett YG-1 with blades folded for taxiing, lowing or storing. Unfolding time is only five minutes. (Kellett Photo)

The Kellett staff in front of the factory in Philadelphia, Not many can noid be identified. Top row: (left to right) Hugh Mulvey, Engineer; Arnold Rasmussen, Mechanic; (three unknown) Wallace Kcllett; Dick Preivett, Chief Engineer; (two unknown) Lew Levitt, Test Pilot; (unknown) Haig Kurjian, Engineer; (two unknown) RodKellett. Front row:Mart DuPont, Mechanic; (unknown) jack Schwartz, Mechanic; (the rest of the front row is unidentified). 1934-35 KD-1 prototype autogiro is in background. (Kellett Photo)

The Kellett staff in front of the factory in Philadelphia, Not many can noid be identified. Top row: (left to right) Hugh Mulvey, Engineer; Arnold Rasmussen, Mechanic; (three unknown) Wallace Kcllett; Dick Preivett, Chief Engineer; (two unknown) Lew Levitt, Test Pilot; (unknown) Haig Kurjian, Engineer; (two unknown) RodKellett. Front row:Mart DuPont, Mechanic; (unknown) jack Schwartz, Mechanic; (the rest of the front row is unidentified). 1934-35 KD-1 prototype autogiro is in background. (Kellett Photo)

At the same time that the KD-1 was announced, Kellett moved from Philadelphia's Municipal Airport which was frequently flooded by the nearby Delaware River. The move was to a 30,000 square foot building about a mile away on Island Road.

After the retirement of the prototype KD-1 about 1943, it rested many years in the basement storage area of Philadelphia's Commercial Museum. It was rescued in 1953 by the author at the request of Wallace Kellett who had a desire to restore it for exhibition. Unfortunately, Mr. Kellett had an untimely death before the restoration was begun. Kellett management bad no interest in the project. It was stored, along with many famous cousins, in a barn on Harold Pit-cairn's estate. In 1959 a fire destroyed the barn and all the autogiros including the KD-1. Some of its parts were saved and put into a reborn KD-1 bearing serial number 101 in 1959. Kellett extensively demonstrated the "new" KD-1 in 1960, planning to go into production again.

"C.A.A. AIRCRAFT LISTING" KELLETT KD-1, KD-1 A, KD-1B, TC 712

I—SPECIFICATIONS PERTINENT

TO ALL MODELS: Spec, Basis Type Certificate No. 712

(Aero, Bulletin 7 A requirements) EQUIPMENT: (Datum is center line of station 1L {lower engine mount attachment to fuselage) (*Means net increase) Class I:

(a) Curtiss-Reed 55501 {ForKD-1 and KD-1B)

102. 7,00-5 wheels (Hayes) with brakes and tires 33 lbs. (-20)

103. 10.5 in. streamline tail wheel (Bendix B) and tire 6 lbs. (+172)

104. Starter

(b) (Eclipes E-80) (For KD-1 A and KD-1B) 18 lbs. (—19)

105. Battery—12 volt (Reading) and box 31 lbs. (-5)

106. Generator

Engine Placard limits

Class II: C.G. limits

200. Misc. items as noted in approved weight Serial Nos.

and balance report. Class III:

301. Flexible pylon installation 10 lbs.

NOTE A. Each aircraft manufactured after Jan. 14, 1941 must, prior to original certification, satisfactorily pass:

(a) An inspection for workmanship, materials and conformity before any covering, metal priming or final finish is applied.

(b) A Final inspection of the completed aircraft.

(c) A check of flight characteristics.

NOTE 1. Eligible for export as follows subject to inspection for equipment specified in Chapter XII of Inspection Handbook: (April 4, 1941) a) Canada—Landplane. Skiplane—not eligible

(b) AÜ other countries except Australia, Great Britain and New Zealand.

NOTE 2. Prior to original certification, the firewall of Model KD-1A aircraft must be brought up to current requirements. Facing forward side of existing firewall with 1/8 in. asbestos firmly secured and finished with oil and moisture-proof pain will be considered the equivalent of current requirements.

NOTE 3. Placard front cockpit is Model KD-1 A, "Solo flying from rear seat only."

II—MODEL KD-1 DESIGNATION 2 POLAg:

Engine Jacobs L-4MA

Placard limits Maximum, except takeoff

—in. Hg., 2000rpm (225 hp) Takeoff (1 minute) —in. Hg., 2200 rpm (245 hp) Propeller Maximum permissible diame ter 106 in.

Placard speed Never exceed 126 mph True Baggage Ind.

Fuel capacity 48 gals. (Two fuselage tanks at Standard wt.

Oil capacity 4 gals. (-8) Serial Nos.

III—MODEL KD 1-A DESIGNATION 2 POLAg: (Same as U.S. Army Air Corps Model G-1B)

Jacobs L-4-MA7 Maximum, except takeoff —in. Hg., 2000 rpm (225 hp) Takeoff (one minute) —in. Hg., 2200 rpm (245 hp) Maximum permissible diameter 106 in.

Never exceed 126 mph True Ind.

30 gals. (Two fuselage tanks at 15 gals, each) (+17) 4 gals. (-8)

(+9.2) and (+14.4) 101 to 106, inclusive, and 108 eligible per NOTES A and 2

IV— MODEL KD-1 B DESIGNATION 1 PCLAg

(Same as KD-1 except desig., std. weight and minor structural changes) Engine Jacobs L-4MA

Placard limits Maximum, except takeoff

—in. Hg., 2000rpm (225 hp) Takeoff (one minute) — in. Hg., 2200 rpm (245 hp) Propeller Maximum permissible diame ter 106 in.

Placard speed Never exceed 126 mph True Ind.

Fuel capacity 30 gals. (Two fuselage tanks at

15 gals, each (+17) Oil Capacity 4 gals (-8) No. passengers None

Propeller

Placard speed

Fuel capacity

Oil capacity No. passengers

Baggage Standard wt. C.G. limits Serial Nos.

300 lbs. (Front pit) (+18) 20 lbs. (Aft of pilot) (+95) 2400 lbs.

(Kellett Photo)

Kellett KD-1 prototype. Compare the samewhel crudc sheet metal work to later copies of the KD-1.

(Kellett Photo)

Kellett KD-1 prototype. Compare the samewhel crudc sheet metal work to later copies of the KD-1.

Kellett Kd1

Kellett KD-1. LouLeaviti delivering bag of mail on Philadelphia's Thirtieth Street post office roof This was a demonstration before the Eastern Air Lines scheduled service. (Kellett Photo)

Kellett YG- 1 Autogiros at the U.S. Air Force Flight Training School, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, about 1938. This Was the first rotary wing aircraft flight school initiated by the U.S. Air Force. (Developed for U.S. Air Force under contract with US. Air Force.)

(Kellett Photo)

Kellett YG- 1 Autogiros at the U.S. Air Force Flight Training School, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, about 1938. This Was the first rotary wing aircraft flight school initiated by the U.S. Air Force. (Developed for U.S. Air Force under contract with US. Air Force.)

(Kellett Photo)

Kellett Autogiros

Kellett YC-1A with Us army decorations. The fuel tanks are on each side at the front cockpit. The right hand horizontal stabilizer had an inverted airfoil while the left was conventional to imparl a rolling moment in proportion to the prop wash and torque imput.

(Bond Bruthers/Kellett Photo)

Kellett Autogiros
First autogiro class at the completion of graduation review, May 21, 1938, Patterson Field, Day Ion. Ohio. The officer in civilian clothes is General Robins, Commanding Officer of Wright-Patterson Field, Col. Gregory (2nd from left). (Kellett Photo)

Kellett KD-1A

The author, assistant project engineer and ex peri mental test pilot with Boii Kenworthy the project engineer for Kellett 1958-1960, con gratulating each other on the first flight of "Reborn" KD-IA. (Kellett Photo,

TheKD-lAwasa slightly modified KD-1. An engine driven generator and an electric engine starter were added. The fuel tankage was reduced from 44 to 30 gallons. Seven of these were sold to the US. Army Air Corps as Model YG-1B.

They were stationed at Ft. Bragg to train pilots as artillery spotters and to carry out other liaison missions. On one occasion a pilot talked over a telephone line that had been dropped to the ground through an Army switchboard to a general in his office.

Two were bailed back to Kellett for developmental work. One was designated the XR-2 and the other XR-3 (see iateT chapters). The remain ing five were given to the border patrol fo Texas/Mexico border surveillance. They wer declared surplus and drifted around Texas am Arizona. One found its way to Canada wher Atlas Aviation wanted to use it for towing advei tising banners. The author "taught" their pilot t fly it by telephone, and he made a successfu solo flight. It was sold to the Leavans Brothers c Canada and, while in their possession, it wa destroyed by fire following a takeoff accident.

In 1960 Kellett found one of the YG-lB's an two engines in Phoenix, Arizona. They bough them for parts to use as backup for the KD-L that they were demonstrating.

Air Pictorial Drawings

JAPANESE VERSION OF KD-1 MANUFACTURED BY KAYABA-Ka-KO

"4"--1 UNDER LICENSE TO KELLETT

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