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Age 36 to 43 Years

While Tesla made a serious attempt to lead a more pure life of monasticism, celibacy, and science, the world would not leave him alone. On the one hand, he had determined during his recent visit to his homeland in the Balkans that he would try to invent the "trigger" that could control the weather forces of Nature. Toward this goal he made invention after invention which was to culminate (1899) in the super-giant Tesla Coil, which he named "The Magnifying Transmitter"- His philosophy at this time (1893) is best summarized by a statement he made in 1919:

"My belief is firm in a law of compensation. The true rewards are ever in proportion to the labor and sacrifices made. This is one of the reasons why I feel certain that of all my inventions, the Magnifying Transmitter will prove most valuable and important to future generations. I am prompted to this prediction not so much by thoughts of the commercial and industrial revolution which it will surely bring about, but of the humanitarian consequences of the many achievements it makes possible. Considerations of mere utility weigh little in the balance against the higher benefits of civilization. We are confronted with portentous problems, which cannot be solved just by providence for our material existence, however abundantly. On the contrary, progress in this direction is fraught with hazards and perils not less menacing than those born from want and suffering. If we were to release the energy of atoms or discover some other way of developing cheap and unlimited power on any one point of the globe, this accomplishment instead of being a blessing, bring disaster to mankind in giving rise to dissension and anarchy which would ultimately result in the enthronement of the hated regime of force.

The greatest good will come from technical improvements tending to unification and harmony, and my wireless transmitter is preeminently such. By its means, the human voice and likeness will be reproduced everywhere and factories driven thousands of miles from waterfalls furnishing the power; aerial machines will be propelled around the earth without stop, and the sun's energy controlled to create lakes and rivers for motive purposes end transformation of arid deserts into fertile land. Its introduction for telegraphic, telephonic and similar uses will automatically cut out the statics and all other interferences which at present impose narrow limits to the application of the wireless."

These were his visions and goals fur humanity. He had only to implement them with his inventions, which of course required materials, men and money. The U.S. was undergoing another depression and money was hard to get. The Westinghouse Company was having financial difficulties, and had to be reorganized. Its new management insisted that the company could not survive if it continued to pay Tesla the royalty rate of one dollar per horsepower, and they put pressure on George Westinghouse to break the contract with Tesla. O'Neill reports this meeting between the two friends, Westinghouse and Tesla, in detail [2]. The conclusion was that Tesla tore up the contract just to help the man who had once helped him. In this gesture, Tesla gave up millions of dollars in future income and thereby bound himself to a life where he was forever handicapped by limited funds for his work. But Tesla's gesture was thoroughly in the spirit of his new resolves and his belief in a law of compensation. Other pressures came from Thomas A. Edison and his companies. As the success of the Tesla alternating current increased, the fortunes of the Edison investments decreased. Edison, it is believed, was instrumental in having New York State introduce electrocution as the form of capital punishment at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining some 30 miles up the Hudson River from New York City [3]. The means used for electrocution was Tesla's alternating current! Of course, this was the worst possible kind of publicity for Tesla's invention.

In order to counteract this bad publicity, Tesla had to do something that would prove the human of the AC system. Fortunately, the Columbia World Exposition was being planned to open in 1893 in Chicago. Westinghouse got the contract to light it with AC, the first world's fair to be so lighted. Then a large exhibition was planned by Westinghouse which would feature the new Tesla inventions. Tesla himself decided to use this event to publicize the safety of the alternating current. He stood on the high tension end of one of his coils that passed over a million volts through his body so that he was enveloped in a sheet of electrical flame. Of course, he had done this experiment privately in his laboratory many times for his FRIENDS, but this was the first time he had done it for publicity. The Edison campaign backfiredd, and Tesla's genius for the theatrical and for safety prevailed in the public mind. But more than this effect, the management of the Edison General Electric Company saw the handwriting on the wall, and quietly licensed the Tesla patents from Westinghouse. But the battle of the electrical giants had one more round to go.

In 1890, the Morgan fmancial group had started a company to try to develop the electric power potential of Niagara Falls. If was called the Cataract Construction Company, and its president was Edward Dean Adams. An international competition was held for the best design for the electrical power plant. The international commission was chaired by Lord Kelvin. The commission found that none of the plans offered were feasible. So the Cataract Company asked for plans and bids from companies in order to get the work under way. It was an incredible personal triumph for Tesla when his concept and plan were adopted by the commission. In October, 1893, two companies were awarded the contracts to electrify Niagara Falls: Westinghouse won the contract to build the AC power plant at the Falls; and General Electric, using the licensed Tesla patents, was awarded the contract to build the transmission lines and distribution systems to Buffalo, New York, 22 miles away. Tesla had set huge ideas and forces in motion years ago, and now the tide of industrial civilization was lifting them higher and higher to the thundering crest of Niagara Falls' worldwide reputation. Meanwhile, back at the laboratory Tesla pushed on toward his goal. He had many problems to solve. Foremost was to build an electrical generator that could duplicate the trigger effect of lightning bolts in releasing rain from clouds. We can reconstruct how Tesla's mind was working in these days from scattered comments he made over the following forty years. He formulated a concept of the electrical system of the earth globe floating and spinning in space on his mental computer screen modeled after the rotating brush bulb. He had determined that one charged body influenced another charged body by electrostatic force oscillations between them. He set up the hypothesis that if this were true of the planets, then an electrostatic force "piston" effect on one planet should be transmissible to another planet. The missing knowledge in this theory was: "Does the planet earth have an electrical charge?"

As simple as this question is, no one had ever been able to answer it scientifically. If the earth had a charge, then Tesla knew that he could "pump" this charge with electrostatic forces and begin to create the effects he envisioned: namely, weather control, illumination of the skies at night, electric power transmission through the earth, and so forth.

In order to determine whether the earth had a charge, he must build a machine that would perturb the earth and its possible mass of electricity to find out what it's natural period of oscillation would be. In other words, he would oscillate the earth very much like one oscillated a clock pendulum, and after it started, determine its natural period of swing. He knew by mathematical calculations that this should be around eight cycles per second. Not knowing whether he would also have to find a mechanical resonance of the earth — by striking it like a bell ~ or if he would have to find an electrical resonance by oscillating it like a coil he set about developing both types of machines. One machine was a mechanical vibrator which would tap the earth - and then he would listen for the sonic resonant tone of response. The other machine was a huge Tesla electrical oscillator coil that would tap the earth electrically, and he would then listen for the resonant electrical tone of response. He proceeded to work on both of these machines.

With respect to the high voltage Tesla coil, he made improvement upon improvement on it in his laboratory at 33 South Fifth Avenue until he was able to produce 4,000,000 vols potential. This was the limit he could go within the confines of a small building within New York City. To go to higher voltages he would have to go out into open country, which he did in 1899. In the meantime, he turned from getting higher voltages, to get finer and finer tuning of his coils. The reason he had to do this was that in order to measure the resonant frequency of the earth, he would have to tune his coil to within a fraction (1/10) of a cycle. He tested the sharpness of "tuning principles" with his coils by building pairs of coils -one being a transmitter and the other a receiver of electrical energy. He would then send out one of his workmen in the vicinity of his laboratory with a receiver coil, and Tesla would send electrical energy to it from a transmitter coil inside his laboratory. In these "tuning" experiments, Tesla was laying the foundation for all future "wireless" or "radio" technology. He planned to make a test of all of his new tuning refinements in the spring of 1895 by sending a boat up the Hudson River north of New York City. With his laboratory as a fixed platform for radio transmission, and the boat as a mobile platform for radio reception: he would make his final tests for circuit tuning and earth electrical resonance.

Unfortunately, his plans were frustrated and delayed. On the night of March 13, 1895, a fire broke our in the basement of 33 South Fifth Avenue and swept through the entire structure, including Tesla's laboratory. All of his hundreds of invention models, plans, notes, laboratory data, tools, photographs- all, were destroyed. Not only was all of Tesla's intellectual capital destroyed on that night, but he had no funds with which to start anew. It was a black, black day for Tesla, blacker than the smoldering ruins of his laboratory.

Even as the disaster of his laboratory loss was still ashes in his heart, the power from Niagara Falls began to flow in August, 1895 — Tesla's greatest triumph to date. The builders and backers of this biggest of all electrical power planes on the planet were highly pleased with the success of the Tesla polyphase system. One of them, Mr. Adams, president of the Cataract Construction Company, gave Tesla his full sympathy for the laboratory loss, and offered to finance all of his future work. Here Tcsla stood at the crossroads of his entire future. If he accepted Adams's offer, he would have the full backing of the powerful J.P. Morgan financial empire. Adams proposed to finance Tesla immediately with $100,000 for a small percentage of shares in Tesla's laboratory. More financing would follow, and in the hands of good financiers, Tesla's money problems would be over, and he could concentrate purely on scientific research. Tesla was in no position to bargain, but he did not want partners, to be controlled, or to be owned. No one knows why he refused the generous overall financial plan, but he accepted only $40,000 to get him going again [4]. For the second time in his life, he waived opportunity to be rich. His monastic ideal was firmly in command. It was not long before he had a new laboratory at Houston Street near Mulberry Street. He plunged into his work with renewed vigor to make up for a lost year of research. His work was prodigious, and to the uninitiated reader he seems to have been going in all directions at once as he turned out new steam engines, perfected radio transmitters and receivers, founded the art of electro-therapy, discovered X-rays, and laid the foundations far the entire art of teleautomatics, or remote-controlled robots. In addition, he discovered different kinds of mechanical vibrators that were useful both for personal massage, and could cause "controlled" earthquakes. But now that we know what his goal was, we can see that each of these pioneering areas of invention were simply new tools toward his end goal. He developed mechanical vibrators because he wanted to know what the resonance vibration (mechanical) was of the earth. Since he had calculated that this could be either in the 8 Hz region, or in the region of 0.00015 Hz, he built devices that could tap the earth at these frequencies. But he was prudent and did a lot of research to make sure that these mechanical vibrators were safe — for himself, for others, and for the planet. He found that the 0.00015 Hz waves were too long to affect a human. However, in the 8 Hz range he found extraordinary effects. He built a vibrating platform driven by a magnetic drive which he could vary over the vibratory range of 6 Hz to 15 Hz. He would stand on this platform and record the effects on himself. He found that in the low range, 6 Hz, one would develop a feeling of pleasant dizziness, some mild nausea, and a profound pelvic relaxation that could lead to sudden massive diarrhea. Today we would call this a cholinergic effect on the parasympathetic nervous system. One day his friend Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, was experimenting with the sensations induced by this vibrator. Clemens was feeling so good that he persisted in staying on the machine after Tesla has warned him that he had had enough. Clemens giggled and said he was having the best sensation of his life, and remember, he was the one who had said, "A woman is just a woman, but a cigar is a good smoke." Suddenly, he turned green, leaped off the vibrator, and headed directly into the nearby water-closet: he had just been triggered into massive colic and diarrhea. Thus Tesla explored the effects of extra low frequency (ELF) mechanical waves, electric waves, and magnetic waves on the human body to check for possible hazardous effects, as well as beneficial effects. Tesla, in exploring the effects of alternating electric currents running through his body, founded the art and science of scientific electrotherapy [5]. Thus he was able to learn which frequencies, voltages, and currents of alternating current were beneficial to man. In working with very high voltages in vacuum tubes, Tesla observed as early as 1892 that there were "invisible radiations" emanating from them. He was pursuing this subject vigorously at the time his laboratory burned on March 13, 1895 and had laid out the whole science of X-

rays including shadowgraph pictures on photographic plates. When Prof. Wilhelm Konrad

Roentgen announced his discovery of X-rays in December of 1895, Tesla was immediately able to reproduce his results. However, Tesla did not publish his findings until March

11, 1896.[6] It is interesting to note that although Tesla worked for years near the X-rays produced by his high voltage vacuum tubes, he was sufficiently aware of their danger so that he did not ever suffer any X-ray bums as did so many of his contemporaries. In the course of the same studies, he discovered cosmic ray particles as early as 1893. [7] These were rediscovered 30 years later by Robert A. Milliken. Thus, in his wide ranging hazard studies Tesla clearly learned the biological effects of extra low frequencies, mechanical and electrical, alternating currents from the top of the hearing range (20,000 Hz) and upwards, light radiation, energetic radiation (X-rays), and energetic particles—electrons, protons, etc. Today we can only laud his caution and concern far living things as he carefully explored the bio-effects of the new energies he was generating.

In addition to the bio-effects, Tesla was also concerned about the effects of these new energies on the dielectrics in his condensers, the insulation in his coils, and the effects of the ozone and nitric oxides thus produced on men and materials. All of these effects he pursued in minute detail, ever seeking to find new materials that would withstand the high voltages he planned and the high frequencies and energetic particles he produced. One of his concerns was for the ability of his structures to withstand the vibratory stresses of the extra low frequency he planned to use. So he methodically vibrated the structures he built with his mechanical generators. One day in his new Houston Street laboratory, he attached a small (hand-sized) vibrator to a steel post of his building. Unknown to Tesla, within a few minutes after the vibrator started, in the surrounding neighborhood windows began to shatter, structural elements of buildings suddenly split, the ground trembled — all the effects of a minor earthquake! People rushed to the local Mulberry street Police Station to complain. The police, knowing of Tesla's presence, rushed to his laboratory. There, as they entered, they saw Tesla swinging a sledgehammer at a small piece of iron attached to a pillar. As Tesla dislodged the Iron piece, the trembling and rumbling of the building immediately ceased Tesla had suddenly realized that his vibrator had hit the resonant frequency of his building -and that it would soon collapse [8]. From such studies he learned to build his coils, towers, and condensers to withstand the dangerous resonances inherent in such extra low frequencies.

We earlier mentioned Tesla's plans to test his finely tuned radio transmitters and receivers just before his lab burned down. In the spring of 1897 Tesla carried out the final tests that gave birth to modern radio. He mounted a radio transmitter and receiver in his laboratory at 46 East Houston Street, and a like pair aboard a ship that slowly moved up the Hudson River in the direction of Indian Point opposite Bear Mountain just south of the famed West Point Military Academy.

The ship and the laboratory continually broadcast messages back and forth over various distances. The tests were a complete success. He announced the results on July 9, 1897 in the ELECTRICAL REVIEW ~ on his 41st birthday. So complete was Tesla's command of the art and science of Radio transmission, that after years of litigation, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in October of 1943 that Tesla had established clear priority over all other claimants in the v, irld for the invention of radio.

But the perfection of radio was only a small part of the tools that Tesla needed for his grand experiment. His highly tuned radios would be used to make a radio map of the earth, and to precisely clock distances and velocity over the globe, hi addition, he knew that he would have large complex equipment to operate and control during his experiments. Since he worked alone ~ usually with only one assistant ~ he would need some means of doing fine tuning, running controls, and reading data points at a distance from where he stood in the experiments. To accomplish this he created the art of teleautomatics. This is the science of remote control of devices and apparatus by means of radio commands. Today this art lies behind the control of gun firing systems, torpedoes, aircraft, rockets, submarines, drone airplanes, trains, subways, etc., etc. Yet Tesla mastered this entire art in a few years. In September 1898 Tesla hired Madison Square Garden in New York City through the generosity of his friend John Hays Hammond. Here he displayed a steel boat several feet long floating in a large tank. Anyone present in the hall could call out a command to have the boat forward or backward, turn right or left, go in a circle, etc. The boat promptly maneuvered directed. The impression created on the public was truly wondrous. It seemed to them that the boat had a mind of its own—an intelligent robot. What in fact happened was that as Tesla stood at a simple control board, he heard the command given, and through his controls relayed the proper command via radio signals to the boat. The excitement created by this invention can best he shared by reading the editorial in the staid Electrical Review of New York from November 9' 1898,

A NEW MARVEL:

As we go to press an invention of Tesla's is announced which must produce a profound impression all over the world. Tesla has already identified himself with a number of most remarkable scientific advances, and great things may still be confidently expected as the fruit of his earnest and persistent labors, but it is difficult for us to see how he could ever produce a more beautiful result than he now makes known through a United states patent issued this week.

To direct and control to the minutest detail, by a subtle agent, the operations of a mechanism however complicated and ponderous, to change its speed and direction at will, to make it perform an unlimited number of movements, without any tangible connection and from great distance, is indeed a closing days of this century of wonders. When Bell transmitted the human voice over a wire so that the faintest of its modulations could be recognized, it was marvelous triumph; when Edison showed his fascinating invention of the phonograph, this, too, was justly looked upon as a wonder; when Tesla first showed the phenomena of the rotating magnetic field, or when he presented the magical effect of a tube of glass brilliantly lighted in his hand, the world stood astonished; when Roentgen announced the epoch-making discovery of the rays bearing his name, the scientific world was thrilled as never before; but we believe that the beauty and importance of the invention Tesla has just announced, in its ultimate developments, will be such as to place it among the most potent factors in the advance and civilization of mankind. The fact that the invention has been thoroughly and practically developed makes its immediate application sure.

In this issue we begin the publication of the clear and exhaustive wording of Tesla's own description of this invention, which will be concluded next week."

Now, as the end of 1898 approached Tesla had invented dozens of new tools, and carried out thousands of measurements in hundreds of experiments in preparation of his grand experiment. Money was always a problem. But his enthusiasm had been conveyed to many of his rich friends, and their respect for his genius made it easy for them to donate the money he needed.

Tesla could only carry out his next experiments in an area where large amounts of alternating current were available. The number one candidate of course, was Niagara Falls, N.Y., but here the cold weather, and long winter snowfall limited the working time to only a few summer months. However, there was a large electric installation in Colorado used to power Telluride Mining Company near Colorado Springs. An old friend, Leonard E. Curtis, was in charge, and when he heard of Tesla's requirements, he invited him to work there. The climate was ideal for year-round research, and the electric power available was adequate, so Tesla decided to go to Colorado Springs. Besides, he would get away from the press who were always hot on his heels looking for a story. He arrived in Colorado Springs in early May 1899. Before him were the tasks of getting land on which to build a laboratory, build a magnifying transmitter from scratch, and test and calibrate all his measuring instruments. This was a Herculean order which even a modern engineering firm could not undertake with a cost plus contract and expect to deliver in less than a few years. Tesla arrived with a few of his laboratory workers, and his engineering associate, Fritz Lowenstein. From Tesla's Colorado Springs notebook, drawings and 436 pages of notes, calculations, photographs, we read that he is conducting definitive experiments by the 11th of June 1899—and by July 3, 1899 has made his first great breakthrough. The genius of Tesla and his workers in setting up one of the great experiments of all time in such a short time is one of the eighth wonders of the world-even to this day. And now let us recount what Tesla discovered.

Even though we have Tesla's notebook before us, we know that he never wrote down novel discoveries until he could file for a patent. He had a life-long habit of keeping all the vital elements of an invention filed secretly in his vast mental computer archive. Therefore, in this reconstruction of his Colorado experiments we include elements that are not recorded, but have become subsequent solid scientific knowledge.

splash due to the low walls of thc glass, and we would havc losses of water (i.e., electricity). Now to conserve the water with use of high pressures and force, we would need glasses with higher and higher walls. Those could eventually become long tubes, perhaps hundreds of feet long. We now realize that with such long tubes we could not slosh the water by hand, back and forth, with the rubes at right angles. We would need some high speed apparatus do the transfer operation. But having done this we would find that the capillary attraction between the water and the glass nails would slow down the transfer from one tube to the other, end this is comparable to a resistance increase in the electric force current, and a self-inductance increase (impedance increase) in the magnetic force. This would prevent resonance attainment—or the maximum swing of force outwards to alternatively maximize first the electrical potential, then the magnetic field potential. The higher the water swings in each tube the greater the "potential" output of the water analog we use to portray the Tesla Coil. placing the electrical oscillations at the superconducting temperature, Tesla removed the resistance to electron flow. This is equivalent to removing all the capillary attraction drag exerted the water flow by the tube well,

Tesla further discovered that the greatest resonance is achieved in such a superconductive state if the coils -the primary and the secondary are round in flat pancake spiral geometry. This is illustrated in Fig. 8 from Tesla's patent drawing. A is the primary coil. B is the flat wound secondary coil with the free end up and unlabelled (going to capacitor ball), and the lower end C, grounded in the earth. D is the rank which holds the artificial refrigerant such as liquid air, or liquid helium.

Now the primary A was connected through a condenser to the alternating current generator from the Telluride Mining Company. Each cycle of current surge in the primary induced a current in the secondary. The secondary is so wound, with it condensers tuned for maximum resonance, that it resonates at 20,700 Hz, and the voltage is likewise stepped up to attain potentials of millions of volts. Now Tesla had achieved far the first time on the planet earth by means of superconductivity two freely oscillating circuits each with maximum resonance, the primary and the secondary. We need no longer concern ourselves with the primary - it is a given constant in the system. We now focus only on the secondary coil. Tesla measured the length of the wire that goes into the winding of the secondary so that it in exactly one quarter of a wave length long. Thus for 20,700 Hz the secondary wire is 3,838 meters in length (Tesla gives these figures in the Colorado notebook as 2.25 miles.) Now this is another secret discovered by Tesla in his radio tuning experiments. If the coil wire length is exactly one quarter of the wave length of its oscillating frequency, all the energy (electrons) will slosh to one end of the wire (remember our water tube model) leaving the other end of the wire with zero energy (no electrons). With this knowledge Tesla could direct all of the energy into the earth with each cycle, and have virtually no radiation loss in the air; or he could direct all of the electrical energy of the secondary coil to the free end in the air with each cycle, in which ease he would get big sparks and radiation into the air. In the first case he could transmit power through the earth. In the second case he could transmit radio energy and information through the air.

He further arranged to have a large ball at the upper (Zero) end of the quarter wave length long secondary coil which served as a condenser in the atmosphere. We have now described in essence the machine which Tesla called a magnifying transmitter, the TMT. It was huge. The primary coil formed a huge tub eighty-five feet across. The secondary coil in pancake form (we do not have its dimensions) was placed inside of the primary as in Fig. 8. The mast holding up the huge, shiny copper ball was several hundred feet high. Tesla was now Prometheus, prepared to steal electrical fire from the Colorado sky. How did he go about this unprecedented adventure?

First, he turned on the generator switch that energized the primary coil so that it was freely oscillating at 900 cycles. This induced a current in the secondary which was tuned to 10,700 Hz. Now the secondary oscillations per cycle must be clearly understood. Tesla had placed high in the air at the upper end of the secondary wire, a large ball. When the secondary (0°-90°) surged all of its electrons into the earth, they were directed toward the large iron core in the center of the earth - a huge magnet. When the electric potential hit this magnet it caused transient iron-cooling with a large release of energy. This iron-liberated electron energy was sloshed back to the ball in the atmosphere on the return swing (900-2700). This charged up the ball to a maximum and then the electron energy was released back into the coil (270°-0°-90°) and earth to complete the full cycle. Now the oscillation had gained more energy than the primary pumped into it because of two effects:

Let it be noted that two of Tesla's early patents (No. 396,121 Thermomagnetic Motor, Jan. 15, 1889; and No. 428,057 Pyromagnetic Electric Generator, May 13, 1890) converted heat directly into electricity. Today in modern industrial metal casting techniques, hot castings are quickly and safely cooled without cracking by applying large electric potentials. In his magnifying transmitter, Tesla used that principle to draw electrical energy from the hot iron core of the earth and feeding it into the oscillator to get higher and higher potentials. In addition, by placing the condenser ball in the atmosphere he drew on the free charge in the air during the part of the cycle (0°- 90°) when the maximum potential on the lower end of the secondary wire was in the earth, and its upper end was at zero potential.

Now he further increased the potential by now only having maximum resonant within the secondary coil-condenser circuit itself, but by getting this entire oscillator to get in perfect harmony (or resonance) with the absolute pitch of the earth itself.

This is how this was accomplished. Tesla had to establish whether the earth had electrical charge, or not. With his sophisticated instruments he probed the earth, and found that it was alive with charge, and that this charge had a natural heartbeat (of the earth) at 8 Hz [11] Furthermore he found that the earth had an electrical charge in the atmosphere up to the ionosphere which increased about 100 volts per meter, thus placing the earth/ionosphere potential difference at hundreds of millions of volts. His findings clearly showed that the earth by itself was resonant at 6 Hz (6.67Hz precisely). He now saw the earth as the inner conductor plate of a spherical capacitor, with the ionosphere as the outer conductor plate [of a spherical capacitor (same as a condenser)], and that the atmosphere was sandwiched between, as the dielectric (or charge bearing gas). This condenser structure formed a resonating cavity with a peak at 8 Hz (7.83Hz). Thus Tesla desired to get the electrical beat of the magnifying transmitter secondary coil in resonance with these two resonant cavities of the earth. He did this by pulsing (or chopping) the 20,700 Hz wave into segments with his magnetic interrupter so that the pulses hit the earth 6 times per second, m this way, he was hitting the earth with weak pulses of energy so that the earth began to ring like a bell. He discovered two new things in this test. First, the electrical 6 Hz pulses tapped the earth with a sound which traveled to the opposite pole (the antipode) of the earth and bounced back in 108 minutes (This it about twice as fast than sound would travel in water if traveling the diameter of the earth and back. - Ed. note). By keeping up this tapping he discovered the sonic stationary wave of the earth. Secondly, he found that the electromagnetic wave also reached electrical resonance in the earth, and that it traveled faster than the speed of light through the earth - or 471,240 kilometers per second. The standard speed of light in a vacuum is 299,000 kilometers per second [12]. Tesla had found that at electrical resonance with the earth, electromagnetic waves had become Supraluminal and Superconducting! In the supraluminal sense, they moved faster than the speed of light! Modern science has never tested this basic discovery. 1 Later on, Tesla made the statement that if he tapped the earth in this fashion sonically for just two weeks, it would spin the earth in two like a sliced apple! [13] Remembering his experience in New York, he was careful not to trigger any earthquakes. The electrical resonances at 8 Hz made it possible to electrostatically oscillate the earth/ionosphere capacitor and create many startling effects. By a method he never disclosed, Tesla was able to condense (or attract) mist and water from clear air. This was the first step toward his plan of weather control. By putting two identical alternating current frequencies into the air and carefully phase shifting them as in his rotating magnetic field (Fig. 3), he found that he could precisely steer a high potential, high energy beam at any velocity he desired around the planet. [14] By this means he planned to influence jet streams and trade winds in order to move clouds around the planet and deliver water where needed. With his ability to produce potentials as high as 20,000,000 volts (measured), he could create lightning bolts over a hundred feet long. He believed that with improved technology of the magnifying transmitter it was possible to produce 100,000,000 volts potentials.[15] By the end of 1899 Tesla had achieved all of his scientific goals. He now knew that he could transmit human information (voice and pictures) by wireless anywhere on the globe— simply and efficiently. He knew that he could transport electrical power anywhere on the earth by using earth as a conductor. He lit a bank of 200 light bulbs (10 kilowatts) by this wireless means at a distance of 26 miles just to spot check his theory.[16]

He knew that he could control weather by either electrically collecting clouds for gathering or dispersing their moisture), or by moving clouds along predetermined paths and releasing their contents with an electrical trigger to produce rain.

He knew that with his sonic lapping of the earth—he called this the science of Telegeodynamics —he could release and adjust the pent-up tectonic forces of the earth and thereby prevent serious earthquakes. He also knew that these extra low frequencies (ELF) both mechanical and electromagnetic, had powerful effects on living things and must be used with caution until they were fully understood.[17]

But most spectacular of all, he felt that he had achieved a test of his theory that all planets and the sun were electrically charged, and that by perturbing this charge with his TMT electrostatic forces, the planets could communicate with each other. To this end he wrote a most fascinating article in Colliers for 1901 entitled, "Talking With The Planets"[18], He further believed that by the same means man could tap on the breast of Mother Sun and release her energy toward the earth as needed— magnetic as well as light. In his 43rd year, Tesla, in spite of every possible obstacle, succeeded in penetrating deeper into Nature's mysteries than any man before, and had even grasped in his hand, the Promethean electrical fire from the sun—even if but for a moment.

He dismantled his Colorado equivalent and laboratory in January, 1900 and returned to New York City. The working knowledge of his secrets was not to be rediscovered until the

Soviets silently announced their success on July 4, 1976. When Tesla returned to New York in early 1900, he made up his mind to try to start a worldwide broadcasting service. But true to his usual solo pattern, he did not want to go

1The blue glow of nuclear reactor cooling ponds is caused by Cherenkov radiation which is a well-known physics phenomena where the particles exceed the speed of light in that medium. The formula for the speed of EM phase velocity is v = 1/sqrt(LC) which can be faster than light speed in a vacuum. See Dr. H. Milnes, "Faster than Light?" Radio Elec., Jan. 1983. -Ed. note public in any way by trying to finance his operation with many stockholders, or even partners. Instead he went to the most powerful financier in the world, J.P. Morgan, who had been impressed with the brilliant success of the Tesla polyphase system in powering the budding industrial world of the United States. Morgan agreed to finance him on a private basis so that Tesla could be his own boss. Tesla decided to build the improved commercial version of the Colorado Springs Magnifying Transmitter 65 miles east of New York City an long Island. This was the first step toward developing a "World Telegraphy System" whose aim was to bring all people on the planet earth into one shared information brain.

As the structure went up in the midst of a 175 acre trace of land, rumor was rife in the little fanning community. No one had ever seen such a strange mushroom-shaped copper-capped 185 foot high tower on this planet. It was designed by one of the most famous architects of the day, Stanford White. The construction was closely guarded as some 50 workers toiled. Great curiosity centered on a mysterious stairway that went deep into the ground in he center of a huge concrete platform that served as the base for the tower. The New York Times for March 17, 1901 makes these curious observations:

"Mr. Scherff, the private secretary of the inventor, told an inquirer that the stairway going into the ground led to a small drainage passage which was to keep the ground below the tower dry. But villagers who watched the construction day by day tell a different story.

They declare char it leads to a well-like excavation as deep as the tower is high, with walls of masonwork and a circular stairway leading to the bottom. From there, they say, tunnels have been built in all directions until the entire ground below the little plain on which the tower is raised has been honeycombed with subterranean passages. They tell with awe how Mr. Tesla, on his weekly visits to Wardenclyffe, spends as much time in the underground passages as he does in the power plant on the surface."

So secretly did work proceed on this Magnifying Transmitter complex that in reading newspapers and journals about it twenty years later we find the mystery still persisted. The tower and structures were completed in 1902, just as Tesla ran out of money. Tesla was unable to finance the construction and installation of the electrical equipment. There werre many simple ways that Tesla could have financed the completion of his grand project. Why he avoided success in the completion of the world Telegraphy System has never been explained satisfactorily, by Tesla or anyone else although many speculations were offered. Tesla, in all subsequent interviews, never wavered in his faith that the design was a practical possibility. In spite of this faith and a burning desire to finish his lifelong quest of taming the electrical forces of the earth, he never made a practical move to bring the effort to conclusion. And even more strangely, no one else on the planet ever tried to duplicate his design—at least, not until the mysterious Russian signals appeared all over the planet in early July, 1976.

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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