Market Analysis

Of the 56 billion dollars spent for research by the the U.S government in 1987, 64% was for military purposes, only 8% was spent on energy related research. More efficient energy distribution systems and sources are needed by both developed and under developed nations. In regards to Project Tesla, the market for wireless power transmission systems is enormous. It has the potential to become a multi-billion dollar per year market.

Market Size

The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is well documented. If we include the demand of third world nations, pushed by their increasing rate of growth, we could expect an even faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future. In 1971, nine industrialized nations, (with 25 percent of the world's population), used 690 million kilowatts, 76 percent of all power generated. The rest of the world used only 218 million kilowatts. By comparison, China generated only 17 million kilowatts and India generated only 15 million kilowatts (less than two percent each) [7]

If a conservative assumption was made that the three-quarters of the world which is only using one-quarter of the current power production were to eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908 million kilowatts will be needed. The demand for electrical power will continue to increase with the industrialization of the world.

Market Projections

The Energy Information Agency (EIA), based in Washington, D.C., reported the 1985 net generation of electric power to be 2,489 billion kilowatt hours. At a conservative sale price of $.04 per kilowatt hour that result in a yearly income of 100 billion dollars. The EIA also reported that the 1985 capacity according to generator name plates to be 656,118 million watts. This would result in a yearly output of 5,740 billion kilowatt hours at 100% utilization. What this means is that we use only about 40% of the power we can generate (an excess capability of 3,251 billion kilowatt hours). Allowing for down time and maintenance and the fact that the night time off peak load is available, it is possible that half of the excess power generation capability could be utilized. If 1,625 billion kilowatt hours were sold yearly at $.06/kilowatt, income would total 9.7 billion dollars.

Project Tesla: Objectives

The objectives of Project Tesla are divided into three areas of investigation: 1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an open air, vertical dipole antenna;

2. Measurement of power insertion losses.

3. Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a distance.

Methods

A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground, have been constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet. This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973-1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB in Wendover, Utah. The USAF used the coil for simulating natural lightning for testing and hardening fighter aircraft. The system has a capacity of over 600 kilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part of the system, has already been built, tested, and is operational. A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing atmospheric losses which work against an efficient coupling to the Schumann Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode X-ray tube. The X-ray tube will be used to charge a 130 ft. tall, vertical tower which will function to provide a vertical current moment. The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter. X-rays emitted from the tube will ionize the atmosphere between the Tesla coil and the tower. This will result in a low resistance path causing all discharges to flow from the coil to the tower. A circulating current of 1,000 amperes in the system will create an ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in the medium surrounding the sphere. The total charge around the tower will be in the range of between 200-600 coulombs. Discharging the tower 7-8 times per second through a fixed or rotary spark gap will create electrical disturbances, which will resonantly excite the Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth.

The propagated wave front will be reflected from the antipode back to the transmitter site. The reflected wave will be reinforced and again radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As a result, an oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann Cavity. The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6% per round trip. If the same amount of power is delivered to the cavity on each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase. This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as energy is delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the energy is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed by this project, loading by tuned circuits at distant locations for power distribution.

The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the United States and overseas. These will be staffed by engineers and scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment. Measurement of power insertion and retrieval losses will be made at the transmitter site and at distant receiving locations. Equipment constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic waves will be employed to measure the effectiveness of using the Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power distribution.

The detection equipment used by project personnel will consist of a pick up coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational amplifiers and active band pass filters. In addition to project detection there will be a record of the experiment recorded by a network of monitoring stations that have been set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann Cavity.

Evaluation Procedure

The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by local and distant measurement stations. The output of the transmitter will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from the antenna. The recordings made by distant stations will be time synchronized to ensure that the data received is a result of the operation of the transmitter. Power insertion and retrieval losses will be analyzed after the measurements taken during the transmission are recorded. Attenuation, field strength, and cavity Q will be calculated using the equations presented in Dr. Corum's papers. These papers are noted in the references. If recorded results indicate power can be efficiently coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase of research involving power reception will be initiated.

Environmental Considerations

The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have several origins. The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order of 30 nanoteslas (nT).2 The largest time varying fields are those generated by solar activity and thunderstorms. These magnetic fields reach a maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT) The magnetic fields produced as a result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20 and 26 Hz.

The magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant frequencies vary from 0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas per root hertz (pT/Hz12). Exposure to man made sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000 million or 1 x 109) times stronger than that of naturally occurring fields. Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as high as 2.5 milliTesla (mT). The field under a 765 kV, 60 Hz power line carrying 1 amp per phase is 15 uT. ELF antennae systems that are used for submarine communication produce fields of 20 uT. Video display Terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of the Schumann Resonance frequencies [9].

Project Tesla will use a 150 kW generator to excite the Schumann cavity. Calculations predict that the field strength due to this excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.

Future Objectives

The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of principle will require a second phase of engineering, the design of receiving stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a large scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove commercial feasibility. Total cost from proof of principle to commercial prototype is expected to total $3 million.

The unit of magnetic induction, formerly "Webers per meter squared" is now a "Tesla." It equals 10,000 gauss, which is a commonly used, smaller unit for magnets and "gaussmeters." - Ed. note

Project Testa«

It has been proven thai electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity.

Experiments to date have shown thai electromagnetic waves of extreme low frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with little attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Resonance Cavity.

The purpose of Project Tesla is to create pulses, or electrical disturbances, that would travel in all directions around the Earth and resonate in the thin membrane of nonconductive air between the ground and the ionosphere in the Schumann Cavity. The pulses, or waves, would follow the surface of the Earth expanding outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth, until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter. This point is called the anbpode. The navel in g waves would be reflected from the antipode to the transmitter, be reinforced, and sent out again. This process, analogous to pushing a pendulum, would be repeated at 8.0 Hz, the resonant frequency of the Schumann Cavity. This is the basis for the wireless transmission of power. Tesla, Inc. has determined the exact method Nikola Tesla used to prove the feasibility of the wireless transmission of power during his experiments in Colorado Springs and the difference between thai and the method he intended to use in the Wardenclyff laboratory. This information will facilitate the successful wireless transmission of electrical power.

The need for a wireless system of energy transmission

There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power exists, yet there is no method for delivering power. Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert. Rural areas, such as those in China, require the electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th Century and to equal standing with western nations. More than three billion people on this planet do not enjoy the access to electrical power thai we in developed nations take for granted.

As first proposed by Buck-minster Fuller, wireless transmission of power would enable world-wide distribution of off-peak demand capacity. This concept is based on the fact that some nations, especially the

United Siaitv have the capacity to gen erate much more power than is needed.

This situation is accentuated si night. The greatest amount of power use, the peak demand, is during the day. the extra power available during the night could be sold to the side of the planet where it is daytime. Considering the huge capacity of power plants in the United States, this system would provide a saleable product which could do much to aid balance of payments while raising the standard of living in Third World countries.

Environmental considerations wmmtmmt The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have several origins. The time-varying magnetic fields produced as a result of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order of 30 nanoteslas. The largest time varying fields are those generated by solar activity and thunderstorms.

So astounding are the facts in this connection, that it would seem as though the Creator, himself, had electrically designed this planet..

— Nikola Testa describing what is now known as Schumann Resonance {?.8Hz) jD "The Transmission ot Electrical Energy Without Wires As A Means Of Furthering World Peace," Electrical World and Engineer, Jan. 7,1905, pp. 21-24.

Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

It seems like the efforts to find the best alternative energy sources are seriously being looked into by lots of countries including most US cities. One proof is the signing of the Kyoto Treaty. The main aim of the concerned group and individuals is to lessen the greenhouse gases and pollutants.

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