Titanic Forces Unleashed by the USSR (1976 - 1986) and by the USA (1980 - 1986)
The first definitive analysis of the new Soviet TMT technology appeared in the authoritative journal Aviation Week & Space Technology. May 2, 1977, "Soviets Push for Beam Weapon,"  and I quote:
"The Soviet Union is developing a charged-particle beam device designed to destroy U.S. intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missile nuclear warheads. Development tests are being conducted at a facility in Soviet Central Asia. The Soviets also are exploring another facet of beam weapons technology and preparing to test a spaceborne hydrogen fluoride high-energy laser designed for a satellite killer role. U.S. officials have coined the term directed-energy weapons and high-energy lasers.
A charged-particle beam weapon focuses and projects atomic particles at the speed of light which could be directed from ground-based sites into space to intercept and neutralize reentry vehicles, according to U.S. officials. Both the USSR and the U.S. also are investigating the concept of placing charged-particle beam devices on spacecraft to intercept missile warheads in space. This method would avoid problems with propagating the beam through the earth's atmosphere. Because of a controversy within the U.S. intelligence community the details of Soviet directed-energy weapons have not been made available to the President or to the National Security Council.
Recent events have persuaded a number of U.S. analysts that directed-energy weapons are nearing prototype testing in the Soviet Union. They include:
1) Detection of large amounts of gaseous hydrogen with traces of tritium in the upper atmosphere. The USAF TRW Block 647 defense support system early warning satellite with scanning radiation detectors and infrared sensors has been used to determine that on seven occasions since November, 1975, tests that may be related to development of a charged-particle beam device have been carried out in a facility at Semipalatinsk.
2) Test of a new, far more powerful fusion-pulse magnetohydrodynamic generator to provide power for a charged-particle beam system at Azgir in Kazakhstan near the Caspian Sea. The experiment took place late last year in an underground chamber in an area of natural salt dome formations in the desert near Azgir and was monitored by the TRW early warning satellite stationed over the Indian Ocean.
3) Point-by-point verification by a team of U.S. physicists 126 and engineers working under USAF sponsorship that the Soviets had achieved a level of success in each of seven areas of high-energy physics necessary to develop a beam weapon.
4) Recent revelations by Soviet physicist Leonid I. Rudakov  during a tour last summer of U.S. fusion laboratories that the USSR can convert electron beam energy to compress fusionable material to release maximum fusion energy. Much of the data outlined by Rudakov during his visit to the Lawrence Livermore
Laboratory has since been labeled top secret by the Defense Department and the Energy Research and Development Administration.
5) Pattern of activity in the USSR, including deployment of large over-the-horizon radars in northern Russia to detect and track U.S. 1CBM reentry vehicles, development and deployment of precision mechanical/phased-array anti-ballistic missile radar and massive efforts aimed at civil defense. The Semipalatinsk facility where beam weapons tests are taking place has been under observation by the U.S. for about 10 years. The central building at the facility is believed by some officials to contain a collective accelerator, electron injector and power stores. The building is 200 ft. wide and 700 ft. long, with walls of reinforced concrete 10-foot thick, the entire facility, with its associated support equipment is estimated to have cost $500 million. The test site is at the southern edge of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test area, and it is separated from other test facilities. It is surrounded by a series of security fences. The total amount invested by the USSR in the test project for the 10 years' work there is estimated at $3 billion by U.S. analysts. The U.S. used highresolution photographic reconnaissance satellites to watch as the Soviet technicians had four holes dug through solid granite formations not far from the main large-building at the facility. Mine heads were constructed over each opening, and frames were built over the holes. As tons of rocks were removed, a large underground chamber was built deep inside the rock formation. In a nearby building, huge extremely thick steel gores were manufactured. The building has since been removed. These steel segments were parts of a large sphere estimated to be about 18 meters (57.8 ft.) in diameter. Enough gores for two complete spheres were constructed. U.S. officials believe the spheres are needed to capture and store energy from nuclear-driven explosives or pulse-power generators.  The steel gores are believed by some officials to be among the earliest clues as to what might be taking place at the facility. The components were moved to the nearby mine heads and lowered into the chamber. One of the major problems in gaining acceptance of the concept within the U.S. scientific community was to convince high-energy physics experts that the Russians might be using nuclear explosive generators as a power source to drive accelerators capable of producing high intensity proton beams of killing potential. U.S. officials, scientists and engineers queried said that the technologies that can be applied to produce a beam weapon include:
1) Explosive or pulsed power generation through either fission or fusion to achieve peak pulses of power.
2) Giant capacitors capable of storing extremely high levels of power for fractions of a second.
3) Electron injectors capable of generating high-energy pulse streams of electrons at high velocities. This is critical to producing some types of beam weapons.
4) Collective accelerator to generate electron pulse streams or hot gas plasma necessary to accelerate other subatomic at high velocities.
5) Flux compression to convert energy from explosive generators to energy to produce the electron beam.
6) Switching necessary to store the energy from the generators in large capacitors.
7) Development of pressurized lines needed to transfer the pulses from the generators to power stores. The lines must be cryogenically cooled because of the extreme power levels involved.
For several years, Air Force Maj. Gen. George J. Keegan, who until his recent retirement headed USAF's intelligence activities has been trying to convince the
Central Intelligence Agency and a number of top U.S. high-energy physicists that the Soviets are development a charged-particle beam weapon for use in an antiballistic missile role.
It was anticipated by Gen. Keegan and his advisers that the USSR would be forced to vent gaseous hydrogen from the experiments at Semipalatinsk and that early warning satellites could detect it. Liquid hydrogen in large amounts is believed by some officials to be utilized to cushion the nuclear explosive generator sphere and for cryogenic pumping of large drift tubes nearly a kilometer in length through which the beams are propagated for underground testing. In both cases, large amounts of gaseous hydrogen are formed and released into the atmosphere, probably carrying large amounts of nuclear debris or radioactive tritium that can be exploded at altitude and dispersed to avoid harming the people below, according to some U.S. scientists. "Explosions of such gaseous hydrogen discharges are now being detected with regularity from Soviet experiments," a U.S. official said, "and scientific studies of the gas releases and explosions have confirmed their source as being near the Semipalatinsk facility."
In recent public pronouncements, Gen Keegan has taken the CIA to task for having rejected Air Force Intelligence information about Soviet beam weapon development. He also has spoken bitterly about a number of top U.S. physicists who refuse to accept even the possibility that the Soviets are involved in beam weapon development. Most of the physicists who would not accept the data were older members of the scientific community who had been involved in research and development from the early days of a project called "Seesaw" The U.S. attempted unsuccessfully to develop a charged-particle beam device under the project code named Seesaw. It was funded by the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency but abandoned after several years.
A number of influential U.S. physicists sought to discredit General Keegan's evidence about Soviet beam development. The general attitude was that, if the U.S. could not successfully produce the technology to have a beam weapon, the Russians certainly could not. "It was the original not-invented-here attitude," one of the U.S. physicists said.
There were about 20 hypotheses advanced by these physicists and the CIA's Nuclear Intelligence Board as to what the facility at Semipalatinsk was being used for by the USSR. One theory was that it was a supersonic ramjet test site and another was that it was a nuclear reactor test site for commercial applications. That was based on the layout, which resembled some reactors in the USSR "There is now no doubt that' there is dumping of energy taking place at the site with burning of large hydrogen flames," one official said  "What bothered the Nuclear Intelligence Board at first was that it was hard to imagine that some seven technologies critical to the weapons concept could be perfected there within the time frame presented and not be detected by us."
It is obvious that the splashing of radio interference all over the planet originating in the Soviet Union has military scientists on edge as they try to second guess Soviet intentions and technology. It is not too surprising that the U.S. military analysts would "guess" that the Soviet Union were developing a "directed-beam" weapon, for this idea has a long history. The invention of the directed-beam goes back to the year 1900, when Nikola Tesla invented his "magnifying transmitter" which developed such high voltages that it equaled lightning bolt effects found in nature. However, he did not reveal to the world the development of his
"directed-beam" until his 78th birthday. Joseph W. Alsop, Jr., writing in the New York Herald Tribune on Wednesday, July 11, 1934, says under the headline:
Beam to Kill Army at 200 Miles. Tesla's Claim on 78th Birthday. "Dr. Nikola Tesla, inventory of polyphase electrical current, pioneer in high frequency transmission, predecessor of Marconi with the wireless, celebrated his 78th birthday yesterday by announcing his invention of a beam of force somewhat similar to the death ray of scientific romance.
It is capable, he believes, of destroying an army 200 miles away. It can bring down an airplane like a duck on the wing, and it can penetrate all but the most enormous thicknesses of armor plate. Since it must be generated at stationary power plants by machines which involve four electrical devices of the most revolutionary sort, Dr. Tesla considers it almost wholly a defensive weapon. In peace times, he says, the beam will also be used to transmit immense voltages of power over distances limited only by the curvature of the earth.
He came to the idea of a beam of force, he said, because of his belief that no weapon has ever been found that is not as successful offensively as defensively. The perfect weapon of defense, he felt, would be a frontier wall, impenetrable and extending up to the limits of the atmosphere of the earth. Such a wall, he believes, is provided by his beam of force. It is produced by a combination of four electrical methods or apparatuses. First and most important is a mechanism for producing rays and other energy manifestations in free air. Hitherto vacuum tubes have always been necessary. Second is an apparatus for producing unheard-of quantities of electrical current and for controlling it when produced. The current is necessary as power for the first mechanism. Without this, no rays of sufficient strength could be produced. The third is a method of intensifying and amplifying the second process, and the fourth is a method of producing 'tremendous electrical repellent force.'
'These four inventions in combination enable man to let loose in free air forces beyond conception,' Dr. Tesla remarked mildly. By scientific application we can project destructive energy in thread-like beams as far as a telescope can discern an object. The range of the beams is only limited by the curvature of the earth. Should you launch an attack in an area covered by these beams, should you say, send in 10,000 planes or an army of a million, the planes would be brought down instantly and the army destroyed. The plane is thus absolutely eliminated as a weapon; it is confined to commerce. And a country's whole frontier can be protected by one of the plants producing these beams every 200 miles. Nor should they be much more costly than an ordinary power plant.
The beam of force itself, as Dr. Tesla described it, is a concentrated current it need be no thicker than a pencil, of microscopic particles moving at several hundred times the speed of artillery projectiles. The machine into which Dr. Tesla combines his four devices is, in reality, a sort of electrical gun. He illustrated the sort of thing that the particles will be, by recalling an incident that occurred often enough when he was experimenting with a cathode tube. Then, sometimes, a particle larger than an electron, but still very tiny, would break off from the cathode, pass out of the tube and hit him. He said that he could feel a sharp, stinging pain where it entered his body, and again at the place where it passed out. The particles in the beam of force, ammunition which the operators of the generating machine will have to supply will travel far faster than such particles as broke off from the cathode, and they will travel in concentrations, he said. (Tesla probably discovered "charge clusters" that penetrated his body, which were acting as an anode at ground potential. Ken Shoulders rediscovered fifty years later that millions of electrons can coagulate into clusters and penetrate any object, even steel. He also patented the process as a new source of energy #5,018,180 and #5,148.461. - Ed. note)
As Dr. Tesla explained it, the tremendous speed of the particles will give them their destruction-dealing qualities. All but the thickest armored surfaces confronting them would be melted through in an instant by the heat generated in the concussion. Dr. Tesla declared that the two most important of the four devices involved in his force beam generator, the mechanism for producing rays in free air, and the mechanism for producing great quantities of electrical current, had both been constructed and demonstrated by actual experiments. The two intensifying and amplifying apparatuses are not yet in existence but he displayed the most perfect confidence that when they are, they will work as he expects them to do."
In a letter to His Majesty's government of Britain, dated August 28, 1936, Tesla offered the secrets of his "beam of force" weapon. During the ensuing correspondence with the
Director of Mechanization, the War Office, London, S.W. 1 [84/T/3458 (M.G.OAb.)], there is a letter from Tesla dated October 26, 1937 in which he states:
"My discoveries and inventions for securing complete immunity from any form of attack constitute the most revolutionary technical advance in history and will affect profoundly the future of humanity. They will save the lives of millions of people and prevent destruction of property of inestimable value in all countries. They may also be the means of preserving and strengthening the greatest empire on earth."
Tesla in this letter pressed for an early decision on the part of His Majesty's government, and then said, "I am indifferent now as to whether these terms are accepted or not, but venture to point out in all deference that if England does not take advantage of the present opportunity, some foreign power might later exact a price so great as to strain to the utmost the financial resources of Great Britain and cripple it seriously."
I might add that Tesla estimated in 1937 that the first beam of force plant could be built for 10 million pounds sterling. Who knows, but God, what the history of World War II might have been, had the British, in 1937, developed Tesla's beam-of-force defense system? Today, forty years later, there is a possibility that the scientists of the Soviet Union have solved the secrets of Tesla's beam-of-force system, now called the directed-beam system. The full implications of the possible Soviet breakthrough are best summarized in the editorial in Aviation Week for May 2. 1977 :
"The Soviet Union has achieved a technical break-through in high-energy physics application that may soon provide it with a directed-energy beam weapon capable of neutralizing the entire United States ballistic missile force and checkmating this country's strategic doctrine. The hard proof of eight successful Soviet tests of directed-energy beam weapon technology gives new and overriding urgency to bring these developments into the public domain and rip the veil of intelligence secrecy so that this whole matter of vital national urgency and survival will finally be brought to the attention of the President of these United States, the Congress and the citizens of this republic whose future is at risk. In all of the previous four years that these Soviet developments have been known to the official intelligence community, they have been stifled by a conspiracy of skepticism and silence and never once penetrated to the highest decision-making council of this country. The incredible story of how the Soviets leap-frogged a generation of high-energy physics technology and developed a workable experimental model of a directed energy beam weapon now has been largely verified by the successive Soviet tests at Semipalatinsk and Azgir and the brilliant work of a small group of extremely young physicists in this country. The fact that this country still has a chance of avoiding a crippling technological surprise that could render its entire strategic missile force ineffective is due to the courageous, dogged and perceptive work of a handful of U.S. Air Force intelligence specialists who polarized around the leadership of Maj. Gen. George Keegan, Jr., recently retired chief of Air Force intelligence.
We do not suggest any formal conspiracy to suppress the mounting evidence of a massive Soviet research development, and industrial push aimed at the goal of an anti-ICBM directed-energy beam weapon. Rather it was a combination of smug American assurance that the Soviets were simply not capable of out-reaching us in any technological race and the intellectual arrogance of elderly scientists who through the ages have spent their twilight years proving that the next generation of breakthroughs is 'impossible.'
In modern times, we have the continuing example of Dr. Vannevar Bush, who thundered that the ICBM was a technical impossibility, and the assortment of scientists in the Eisenhower era who firmly believed that manned spaceflight should be abandoned because the human system could not survive its rigors. It was a similar group of high-energy physicists, some heavy with Nobel laurels, who encouraged the natural technical illiteracy of the Central Intelligence Agency to discount the steadily growing stream of Soviet developments and to lead the bitter intramural battles that suppressed the evidence from higher government councils for crucial years.
There is still considerable debate over the real significance of the Soviet tests at Semipalatinsk and Azgir and how long it will take the Soviets to translate their experimental developments into a usable weapon. But there is no longer much doubt among top-level U.S. high-energy physicists that it is feasible to develop a directed-energy beam device.
There is also an element in the Pentagon that can visualize the eventual Soviet deployment of the directed-energy beam weapon as the end game of an intricate chess exercise that began with the 1972 negotiation of the anti-ballistic missile treaty, which effectively stopped not only U.S. deployment of an anti-ICBM system but also most of its significant on-going research and development. The hypothesis for this chess game, which ends in the early 1980's with the triumphant Soviet shout of 'check and mate,' involves the U.S. finding its strategic deterrent ballistic missile force stripped of any defensive system, with the Soviets using their anti-ICBM directed-energy beam weapon to negate a U.S. retaliation and a strong civil defense shield to minimize damage from the few warheads that night penetrate.
The race to perfect directed-energy weapons is a reality. Despite initial skepticism, the U.S. scientific community now is pressuring for accelerated efforts in this area."
While the Western military mind was focusing its tunnel vision on hardware and its physical effects on material systems, the Soviets were creating subtle but profound effects on the entire planetary biosphere. We shall review a number of the various effects that the Soviets induced in living things in this chapter. The history of Soviet research in affecting living things with electromagnetic radiation has a long history, and the interested reader is referred to the recent book by Alexandr P. Dubrov, of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which has some 1228 references on this subject. 
Of immediate interest is the fact that the Soviets began to irradiate the U.S. Embassy in Moscow beginning in 1960, and for years afterward, with microwaves, or very high radio frequencies.  (It is an historic fact that the U.S. installed copper sheets on the walls of the embassy but a lot of the U.S. embassy workers were still stricken with cancer within a few years. - Ed. note) This practice has been a puzzle to U.S. experts over the years. The Soviets have never explained their intent, or their goals. It is my opinion that the Soviets have tried to deflect the interest of the American experts away from the ELF radio spectrum by directing their attention to the opposite end of the radio spectrum. 
It is small consolation to note that all the ideas and technologies for the TMT, including weather modification, were carried out by Nikola Tesla in 1900. Tesla almost received recognition for this work, and we quote from the New York Times, November 7, 1915. The headline states:
Tesla's Discovery: Nobel Prize Winner
"Transmission of Electrical Energy without Wires, which affects Present-day Problems." "To Illuminate the Ocean, Scientist says, Collisions will be Avoided, and Unlimited Water Drawn to Irrigate Deserts."
Nikola Tesla, who with Thomas A. Edison, is to share the Nobel Prize in Physics, according to a dispatch from London, said last evening that he had not yet been officially notified of the honor. His only information on the matter was the dispatch in the New York Times.
"I have concluded," he said, "that the honor has been conferred upon me in acknowledgement of a discovery announced a short time ago which concerns the transmission of electrical effects of unlimited intensity and power can be produced, so that not only can energy be transmitted for all practical purposes to any terrestrial distance, but even effects of cosmic magnitude may be created."
Mr. Tesla said the discovery had a direct and vital bearing on the problems now foremost in the public mind. For instance, he said, wireless telephony would be brought to perfection undreamed of through the application of this discovery. He added, "We will deprive the ocean of its terrors by illuminating the sky, thus avoiding collisions at sea and other disasters caused by darkness. We will draw unlimited quantities of water from the ocean and irrigate the deserts and other arid regions. In this way we will fertilize the soil and derive any amount of power from the sun. I also believe that ultimately all battles, if they should come, will be waged by electrical waves instead of explosives."
Alas for Tesla, the Nobel Prize was never formally awarded to him. But his ideas and experiments on weather modification were quite specific, and used the same magnifying transmitter power source, as would be used in over-the-horizon radar, or a directed-beam weapon. What is not generally known is that Tesla invented a device that performs the functions of a true over-the-horizon radar which he called "telegeodynamics".  In this invention he introduced controlled seismic tapping of the earth, and with proper receivers, he claimed to be able to keep track of every moving vehicle on the planet. But it would be more colorful to quote his own words in an interview on his 79th birthday from the New York Times, July 11, 1935.
One of the subjects which he hoped, he said, will come to be recognized as his "greatest achievement in the field of engineering," was, he said, the perfection by him of "an apparatus by which mechanical energy can be transmitted to any part of the terrestrial globe."
This apparatus, he said, will have at least four practical possibilities. It will give the world a new means of unfailing communication; it will provide a new and by far the safest means for guiding ships at sea and into port; it will furnish a certain divining rod for locating ore deposits of any kind under the surface of the earth; and finally, it will furnish scientists with a means for laying bare the physical conditions of the earth, and will enable them to determine all of the earth's physical constants.
He called this discovery "tele-geodynamics", motion of earth-forces at a distance.
Further details about this invention are given in The New York American of the same date. The headline is:
TESLA'S 'CONTROLLED' EARTHQUAKE
Nikola Tesla, father of radio and of the modem method of electric power transmission, observed his 79th birthday yesterday by drinking a quart of boiled milk and outlining the latest of his many startling discoveries.
This is an apparatus by which energy can be transmitted to any part of the earth, with practical possibilities in the navigation of ships, discovery of ore deposits and determination of the physical properties of the earth's interior.
His experiments in transmitting mechanical vibrations through the earth, called by him the art of telegeodynamics, were roughly described by the scientist as a sort of "controlled earthquake."
The rhythmical vibrations pass through the earth with almost no loss of energy, he said, and predicted the system in time will be universally adopted, since it furnishes an "unfailing means of communication". 
He asserted: "It becomes possible to convey mechanical effects to the greatest terrestrial distances and produce all kinds of unique effects of inestimable value to science, industry and the arts."
The invention could be used with destructive effect in war, he said, by exploding bombs thousands of miles away which had been equipped with apparatus to receive the vibrations.
Tesla once said to a reporter with respect to his telegeodynamic art of "controlled earthquakes" that with a small amount of power it would take about two weeks to two months of vibration of the earth to bring it to full resonance, "and it could be made to split in two — like an apple. " Is there a possibility that the Soviets are experimenting with Tesla's method of "controlled earthquakes"? (As the cold war ended with the fall of the Berlin wall, the Soviet Union being dissolved, the new Russia has little funding for such activities since the U.S. has become its ally. However, the technological process still exists. - Ed. note)
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