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Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. More here...

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Author: Alexander Cain
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Jumpstart Liberty Review

The world faces different forms of natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcano blast, and many others. On the other hand, the world might also face man-made disasters such as nuclear war, cold war or even electromagnetic pulse (EMP). In a case of any of the disasters striking, you would love to see your friends and family safe from the danger. These disasters, not only affects the country citizens but also the economy. Therefore, you might need ideas on how to do be safe. That is why you need the Jumpstart Liberty book. It is a well-drafted guide, which gives out vital information on ways in which you can handle yourself, your family and friends, in case of the tough moments ahead. The book is written by Ken White, with a view of helping us access several survival tricks with minimal struggle and problems. This is a fantastic guide that will prove handy in the hour of need. Get a copy today and learn how to face unforeseen occurrences. More here...

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History of Solar Engines

In the1860s, French mathematician, August Mouchet proposed an idea for solar powered steam engines. In the following two decades, he and his assistant, Abel Pifre, constructed the first solar powered engines and used them for a variety of applications. These engines became the predecessors of modern parabolic dish collectors. At the conclusion of World War Two, scientist, novelist and visionary, Arthur C. Clark proposed the idea of satellites using solar powered steam engines.

Circuit Section Spark Overshoot Device

Efficient Power Supply Suitable for Inductive Loads was patented by Mr. Edwin Gray in 1986. Mr. Gray passed away in 1989. Rumour has it from his wife, he disappeared. To my knowledge he still holds the rights to the patent If you are interested in manufacturing this device you should try to seek permission from any controlling interest of the patent. We all are aware of the fact that we now stand at the edge of a world war and or terrorist attacks motivated in part by the need for energy. It is definitely in the best interest of the United States of America to develop new energy sources as quickly as possible. Technological information travels so fast today that if we in the United States take a day off, an other country will bring this to market by tomorrow. 1 personally think that there is a social responsibility to bring this to market. If someone does hold the patent rights, then it would seem that a fair and

Regionalizing trade flows

For this reason, among others, fuel duty exemption for international shipping and aviation is what has done the global environment the greatest damage. While the exemption for shipping is a hangover from earlier times, the exemption for aviation was only introduced after the second world war. The effect of these exemptions on the structure of the global economy began to be felt with the construction of giant freighters of over 100,000 tonnes displacement, and of large cargo planes.

Arming for the resource conflict

The classical modus operandi of geopolitical resource security was territorial colonialism. Colonies, however, required political administration and standing armies. With the rise of domestic liberation movements backed by international support and spurred by the ascendancy of the democratic ideal in the 20th century, colonialism became inefficient and inopportune. Indian independence and the successful communist revolution in China immediately after the second world war sounded its final death knells. actions taken against states who dared upset the resource status quo. The subsequent occasional missile attacks on Iraq are intended to frustrate the country's aspirations to become a nuclear power. The knock-on effect, however, has been to push other nations in the global competition for resources to accelerate their own nuclear weapons programmes. Once these countries are established nuclear powers, the USA will no longer be able to push them around as it did Iraq this is the lesson...

Printed And Bound In The United States Of America

In 1938 and 1939, George was engaged in crop-dusting with a Pitcairn PCA-2 Autogiro and shortly thereafter was hired as Piasecki's test pilot to fly the PV-2 helicopter and the Navy XHRP.l, the world's largest helicopter in 1944. During World War II, George was an instructor in the CPT Civilian Pilot Training Program, instructing in the Waco UPF and later flew evaluation tests for the United States Air Force on two unpowered rotorkites to determine the feasibility of towing helicopters to extend their range.

Impact of Supply and Demand on Price

On the other hand, in the earliest days of the U.S. oil industry, the tendency of oil prices to drop too low presented more of a problem to the U.S. economy. For example, around the time of the Great Depression, the huge leap in U.S. oil reserves that resulted from the Joiner discovery in 1930 caused a glut of supply that then drove the price of oil down to 10 cents a barrel in 1931. This wreaked havoc on the economic stability of the oil industry and had ripples in the economy as a whole. The New Deal administration, however, helped to restore some measure of stability, and World War II stimulated the oil business enormously.

Nuclear Power Technologies

The development of nuclear reactors for power production began following World War II when engineers and scientists involved in the development of the atomic bomb recognized that controlled nuclear chain reactions could provide an excellent source of heat for the production of electricity. Early research on a variety of reactor concepts culminated in President Eisenhower's 1953 address to the United Nations in which he gave his famous Atoms for Peace speech, in which he pledged the United States to find the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life. In 1954, President Eisenhower signed the 1954 Atomic Energy Act that fostered the cooperative development of nuclear energy by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and private industry. This marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power program in the United States.

Heat electrical or mechanical power and fuel generation

Wind turbines have been in substantial use for more than 1000 years, with early text evidence in China and India, the earliest pictures being from Persia around 1300. These were all vertical axis machines, spreading to the Mediterranean region of Europe, while horizontal axis machines were developed in England, Holland, Denmark, the Baltic region and Russia (cf. overview of wind history in Serensen, 1995a). Cities like Copenhagen had in the 16th century about a hundred turbines with a hub-height of over 10m grinding flour just outside the city walls, and in Holland, some wind turbines were used to pump water as part of the drainage system on low land. Around 1900, wind turbines played a significant role in powering new settlements in the North American plains and Australian outposts, and the first hydrogen and electricity producing wind turbines were tested in Denmark (la Cour, 1900 cf. Hansen, 1985). The d.c. electricity-producing wind turbines kept competing with coal-based power...

Fuel production from biomass overview and generation of gaseous fuels

Inefficient conversion of coal to oil has historically been used by isolated coal-rich but oil-deficient nations (Germany during World War II, South Africa). Coal is gasified to carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which is then, by the Fischer-Tropsch process (passage through a reactor, e.g., a fluidised bed, with a nickel, cobalt, or iron catalyst), partially converted into hydrocarbons. Sulphur compounds have to be removed as they would impede the function of the catalyst. The reactions involved are of the form

Relations With The United States

Currency for trading in the global oil market, some have claimed that the true reason for U.S. opposition to Iran is not Iran's support of terrorism or possible nuclear weapons program, but its challenging of the supremacy of the U.S. dollar in the international oil market. Yet strained U.S.-Iranian relations have a long history and have been due to a series of energy-related conflicts, rather than to the nuclear issue or the euro issue alone. For example, when Mohammad Mossadegh was prime minister of Iran (1951-53), he nationalized Iran's oil industry, which was originally under British control. In response Britain enforced an economic blockade against Iran and, working with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), helped to instigate Mossadegh's overthrow by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mossadegh was sent to prison, where he died in 1967. The shah opened Iran's oil reserves to Western companies. Whereas Mossadegh's oil policies were antagonistic to the United States and Britain,...

Energy subsidies the economic bankruptcy of conventional energy systems

A relatively small proportion of the total expenditure, but still disproportionately high, consists of the subsidies for research and development in the nuclear and fossil fuel industries. My book A Solar Manifesto lists subsidies for all OECD countries between 1984 and 1995 of 9.27 billion for renewable energy, 17.48 billion for fossil fuels, 56.43 billion for nuclear fission and 14.64 billion for nuclear fusion.10 These figures do not include expenditure on nuclear weapons research by countries with nuclear capability, from which civilian nuclear power also benefits (and vice versa). A study published in 1997 by Greenpeace summarized direct state subsidies ie, for research, development and market support for the Member States of the EU. In 1995 the figures were 9.68 billion for fossil fuels, 4.1 billion for nuclear power, but only 1.24 billion for renewable energy.11 The Alliance to Save Energy puts US state subsidies in 1994 at at least 21 billion, of which around 95 per cent was...

Renewable Energy and Democracy

In the 1970s, an energy movement arose in Denmark as in many other Western countries. This movement was constituted among others by the antinuclear movement (OOA) and the Danish Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE). When the OOA was created and these energy problems were discussed, the issues of democracy and living conditions in local communities played major roles in the arguments against nuclear and in favor of renewable energy. With regard to nuclear, some were afraid of the consequences of such technology in terms of security and ownership. The question was how to guard the plants and the transport of radioactive waste without having to hire security staff and erecting fences. Who should own and operate these big power stations If ownership was assigned to big companies, it would mean that local communities would lose influence. Also, how should space for nuclear power stations be allocated and radioactive waste be disposed of without impacting the quality of life for the...

The energy future and the role of renewable energy

The average heat flux of anthropogenic origin (i.e. from fossil fuels) in an industrial and urban area such as the Los Angeles Basin (about 1010 m2) was estimated in 1970 to be 7 Wm-2 (Lees, 1970). The global average value around 1970 was 0.015 Wm-2 (see section 2.4.1), and the average solar flux absorbed by the Earth-atmosphere system is 240 Wm-2 (see Fig. 2.86). For comparison, a forest fire, which would burn down an area of fertile, tropical forests in one week, would release a heat flux of about 1000 Wm-2. Yet the average heat flux from forest fires in all continental regions, the average being over several years, is less than the average anthropogenic heat flux. The nuclear weapons arsenal built up during the last 50 years is somewhere in the range of 104-105 megatons (Feld, 1976), the higher figure corresponding to about 4.4x1020 J. If these weapons were detonated within a 24-hour interval, the average energy flux would be 5x1015 W, and if the target area were 1012 m2, the...

Methane Fermentation A Early Work on Microbial Methane

To keep biogas and the microbial gasification of biomass in the proper perspective, however, note just a few of the fossil-based methane developments that predate much of the early work done on biogas. Natural gas wells were known in Asia as early as 615. The Chinese reported the transport of natural gas through bamboo tubes for lighting in 900. In 1691, the English researcher Robert Boyle reported that a combustible gas is produced when coal is heated. In 1775, General George Washington described a gas well in West Virginia adjacent to a tract of land granted to him and General Andrew Lewis as a burning spring. In 1806, the first gas mains laid in a public street were constructed in London. In 1819, the first gas company was formed in France to light the city of Paris. The coal gasification industry was established in the 1800s and was then displaced in many countries by the natural gas industry after World War II as a major part of the international energy economy. The point that...

The Biological Vacuum The Optimal Driving Force for Machines

Schauberger Repulsator

Observations over many years of the almost motionless stationary trout in rushing mountain streams led to the discovery of the best and cheapest source of mechanical power. It is a form of energy that promotes healthy growth and will free humanity from the technology that presently enslaves it. Founded on a biological vacuum, it will provide the basis for a quantitative and qualitative increase in productivity, thereby solving the pressing problem of more and more people and less and less food. The political turmoil now apparent everywhere can easily lead to the third and last World War, which if atom bombs are used, will mean the end of civilisation. This should certainly be reason enough to consider the following seriously even though it may appear utopian at first sight, an aspect that should offer no further impediment once the academic expertise derived from the misinterpretation of fundamentals collapses like a house of cards. Nor should it be rejected because many occupations...

Morays Radiant Energy Device

Moray Patent

One of the remarkable examples of a successful C0P 1.0 system was the radiant energy system of Dr. T. Henry Moray of Salt Lake City, prior to World War II. Figure 5-1- shows Dr. Moray and his final 50 kW unit, powering an assembly of light bulbs 287 . The device weighed 55 pounds, used an antenna connected as a signal input from the ether, but needed no input of electrical energy by the operator in order to achieve its steady power output.

History from windmill to wind turbine

Persian Vertical Axis Windmill

The majority of the wind turbines built before 1970 were small machines designed for battery charging. The 1.25 MW Smith-Putnam wind turbine constituted a notable exception. This constant speed turbine, built in 1941, had a two-bladed rotor of 53.3-meter diameter mounted on a 33.5 m high truss tower. It featured full-span active control of the blade pitch angle using a fly-ball governor, active yaw control by means of a servomotor, and flapping hinges to reduce gyroscopic loads on the rotor shaft. The turbine was erected on the top of a hill called Grandpa's Knob near Rutland, Vermont, USA. It supplied AC power to the local grid for 695 hours from October 1941 till March 1945 when a blade failure due to fatigue disabled the turbine 225 (in 1943 a bearing failed which could not be replaced for two years due to the Second World War 80 ). mental and environmentalist sides. From an environmental point of view, generating electricity using wind turbines consumes no feedstock of fuel, emits...

Using The Bilateral Psychogalvanometer

By the 1930's, when valve amplifiers came into use, the psychogalvanometer was adapted for use with pen recorders and became a powerful tool in the hands of the Police as a iLie Detector . After the 2nd World War it was popularised by the C.I.A. and the United States Police forces as the Polygraph. But even in these applications it was only detecting emotional arousal as an adjunct of lying. People with abnormal psychoses would not give accurate readings under interrogation because of the pressure of internal, mental activity, which masked the external word stimuli.

Modern Historic Technology

There's no need to reinvent the water-pumping windmill. It's a workhorse that has been mostly unchanged since before World War II. About one million windmills are pumping water in the world today. The most common application is to install a windmill directly over a drilled or dug well. Pumping water from an aboveground source is also an easy task for a windmill. If you need to pump water on your property and the site has access to reliable winds, a water-pumping windmill may be a good option.

Biomass Gasifier Stove Dealers Mail

In Chapters 7 and 8, the thermal conversion of biomass to energy by combustion and to liquid fuels by pyrolysis and a few nonpyrolytic liquefaction processes was examined. In this chapter, the subject of thermal conversion will be expanded further by addressing biomass gasification. Biomass gasification processes are generally designed to produce low- to medium-energy fuel gases, synthesis gases for the manufacture of chemicals, or hydrogen. More than one million small-scale, airblown gasifiers for wood and biomass-derived charcoal feedstocks were built during World War II to manufacture low-energy gas to power vehicles and to generate steam and electric power. Units were available in many designs. Thousands were mounted on vehicles and many were retrofitted to gas-fired furnaces. Sweden alone had over 70,000 GENGAS trucks, buses, and cars in operation in mid-1945 (Swedish Academy of Engineering, 1950). Research continues to develop innovative biomass gasification processes in North...

Fuel production from biomass generation of liquid biofuels

The hydrolysis process is given by (4.150). In earlier times, hydrolysis was always achieved by adding an acid to the cellulosic material. During both world wars, Germany produced ethanol from cellulosic material by acid hydrolysis, but at very high cost. Acid recycling is incomplete, with low acid concentration the lignocelluloses is not degraded, and with high acid concentration the sugar already formed from hemicellulose is destroyed. By high-pressure hydrogenation, biomass may be transformed into a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons suitable for further refining or synthesis of methanol (Chartier and Meriaux, 1980), but all methanol production schemes so far have used a synthesis gas, which may be derived from wood gasification or coal gasification. The low-quality producer gas resulting directly from the wood gasification (used in cars throughout Europe during World War II) is a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas (see section 4.8.2). If air is...

Why are Stakeholders So Important

Many of these parties will not actually realize they are stakeholders at the outset of renewable energy development. Their reaction to renewable energy upon realization that it affects them will often be coloured by the party that contacts them first and the information they receive. If the first news a local resident receives about a wind development is that turbines sound like Second World War bombers and look like a skyscraper with no windows, that is not a promising start. If by contrast residential energy consumers are engaged in the vision of a clean energy future, the harnessing of a local resource and a new rural industry, they will often be supportive.

J P Morgan Sinks Tesla

In 1901, Tesla signed over to Morgan controlling interest in the patents he still owned, as well as all future ones, in lighting and radio. Morgan then put about 150,000 startup funding into Wardenclyffe. Later he invested more, just enough to bring the project within sight of completion. Morgan then became elusive. Tesla tried desperately to communicate with the investor, but to no avail. When word was out on Wall Street that Morgan had withdrawn support, no one would touch the project. This finished Tesla as a functioning inventor. Work on the Wardenclyffe tower came to a halt. Left to dereliction, the tower remained only as a curiosity to passersby. During World War I, the tower was unceremoniously dynamited to the ground.


Natural gas displaced most manufactured gas for municipal distribution in industrialized countries after World War II. In the 1960s and 1970s, interest in developing advanced coal gasification processes was rekindled when it was believed that natural gas reserves would become insufficient in a few years to meet demand. This activity has since declined, but several coal gasification processes developed during this period have been commercialized and are used for production of fuel and synthesis gas.


Energy demand in the pre-industrial world was provided mostly by man and animal power and to a limited extent from the burning of wood for heating, cooking and smelting of metals. The discovery of abundant coal, and the concurrent technological advances in its use, propelled the industrial revolution. Steam engines, mechanized production and improved transportation, all fuelled directly by coal, rapidly followed. The inter-war years saw the rise of oil exploration and use. Access to this critical fuel became a key issue during the Second World War. Post-war industrial expansion and prosperity was increasingly driven by oil, as was the massive growth in private car use. More recently a new phase of economic growth has been underpinned to a great extent by natural gas.

Maritime Connections

At the end of the 1980s Bremerhaven suffered from serious economic decline, recalled the city's Lord Mayor Jorg Schulz in December 2008 in his office 'Bremerhaven is a maritime city, and its local economy traditionally always relied on shipping, shipbuilding, and commercial fishery. Since World War II Bremerhaven also served as a main logistical and supply port to US forces stationed in Germany. Many American families at that time resided in our city, and contributed financially and otherwise to the local economy.'


The development of nuclear power began after World War II and continues today. The first powergenerating plants were constructed in the late 1950 s. During the 1960 s and 1970 s, there was a large commitment to nuclear power until the accidents occurred at Three Mile Island in 1979 and then at Chernobyl in 1986. The new safety requirements and delays caused by these accidents drove up the costs and at the same time caused a loss of public acceptance. In the U.S., many plant orders were canceled in other countries, entire nuclear programs were canceled.

The Problem

When the climate was tropical across much of the planet and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were very high. This storing of carbon through the growth of plant matter, and its subsequent conversion to coal, oil, peat and gas, dramatically reduced atmospheric CO2 levels and played an important role in cooling the planet to temperatures that could support advanced life forms. The concern now is that by unlocking this stored carbon climate change is being driven in the other direction, with global warming the direct result of an excessive greenhouse effect. Ice core samples indicate that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was more or less stable at 280 parts per million (ppm) over the last few thousand years up to the onset of the industrial revolution at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Subsequently, atmospheric CO2 levels rose, at first slowly as a result of coal burning but since the Second World War the release of CO2 has accelerated reflecting the exploitation of a...

Section Five

The Soviet Union is developing a charged-particle beam device designed to destroy U.S. intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missile nuclear warheads. Development tests are being conducted at a facility in Soviet Central Asia. The Soviets also are exploring another facet of beam weapons technology and preparing to test a spaceborne hydrogen fluoride high-energy laser designed for a satellite killer role. U.S. officials have coined the term directed-energy weapons and high-energy lasers. I might add that Tesla estimated in 1937 that the first beam of force plant could be built for 10 million pounds sterling. Who knows, but God, what the history of World War II might have been, had the British, in 1937, developed Tesla's beam-of-force defense system Today, forty years later, there is a possibility that the scientists of the Soviet Union have solved the secrets of Tesla's beam-of-force system, now called the directed-beam system. The full implications of the possible Soviet...

New German Tariffs

During the conference opening session, first speaker Joachim Nick-Leptin of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, provided a detailed overview of his country's long-term renewable energy objectives. He, among others, focused on details of the new (EEG) feed-in tariffs law that commenced on 1 January, 2009. With regard to these new tariffs, the onshore wind power rate has increased from 7.87 to 9.2 eurocents kWh - including an annual 1 kWh pay reduction a change from the initial plan of 2 . The latter measure is aimed at boosting cost benefit gains through innovation. Also new in the EEG legislation is a repowering bonus of 0.5 eurocent kWh. This measure is designed to optimize the use of increasingly scarce land-based wind locations. Site repowering often increases yields by a factor 5-10, and generally means

Economic Challenges

As Iran has, Saudi Arabia has run into problems in the Western world over its potential to manufacture nuclear weapons. In 2003 Saudi leadership had claimed that worsening relations with the United States were driving it to consider developing nuclear weapons.30 A former Saudi Arabian ambassador to the United Nations, Muhammad Khilewi, defected to the United States in 1994 and revealed documents that hinted of an arrangement between Saudi Arabia and Pakistan by which Saudi Arabia would partially fund Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons in exchange for the Saudis' ability to use such weapons should nuclear aggression be directed at them. However, Saudi Arabia has denied that any nuclear weapons program is being pursued on its soil. Yet in 2005 Saudi Arabia also signed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Small Quantities Protocol, which allows countries with a low risk of nuclear weapons proliferation to opt out of extensive inspections for nuclear weapons if they make a...

Pump Controllers

The knowledge, reactor, supplies, and other equipment needed to make the fissionable nuclear materials for the Smiling Buddha, a 12-kiloton bomb, were provided to India under the U.S. Atoms for Peace nonproliferation program that was launched in the mid-1950s. Despite the program's required assurances that nuclear technologies would be used only for peaceful purposes and not for military purposes, India developed the bomb. Since then, India has exploded at least five more nuclear weapons. While the exact numbers are unknown, India likely has a nuclear arsenal of about 60 bombs, and enough refined nuclear materials to make many more. But the nuclear materials restriction has come to an end. Despite India's well-known record for turning nuclear power into nuclear weapons and its refusal to participate in international nuclear controls, the 45-country Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) has approved a special exemption from its rules so that nuclear materials can again be supplied to India....

Nohassle Water Power

Majority of Western Shoshone tribal members do not want the repository to be built, and they do not want more nuclear weapons tested on their lands. They believe the land and the water beneath it to be sacred, but the DOE, EPA, and Congress are still trying to take it away once and for all, and continue poisoning the land.


Credentials Obama dipped into the academic world to nominate Steven Chu for Secretary of Energy, a challenging role that supervises the sprawling Department of Energy's nuclear weapons supply and nearly every other aspect of government regulation and information about energy supply and infrastructure. Chu is a physicist and Nobel Prize winner who should be up to the task. Since 2004, he's been at the helm of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, leading studies in advanced biofuels, artificial

Nuclear Power

Yet Iran has claimed that its pursuit of nuclear power is a part of an attempt to diversify its energy assets to bolster its largely oil-dependent economy while making good use of its significant reserves of uranium ore. Iran is a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which it ratified in 1970 and which binds member countries to an agreement to develop, research, produce, and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only. However, in 2003 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported that Iran had during the preceding 18 years secretly pursued an uranium enrichment program. The NPT permits its members to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes, albeit only with IAEA oversight, as the same technology used for producing fuel for nuclear power can be used for producing fuel for a nuclear weapon. The fact that Iran hid its enrichment program for 18 years has raised international concern that the true purpose of the program might be the development of a nuclear...

Economic theory

Furthermore, the applicability of the simulation approach is limited because of the uncertainty inherent in time-integration over very long time intervals, using economic parameters which are certainly going to be modified during the course of time, or be replaced by completely different concepts in response to changes in external conditions as well as major changes in the organisation and value systems of societies. Examples of problems which defy description in terms of conventional economic theories with use of simulation techniques, may be the socio-economic costs of possible climatic impact from human (profit-seeking) activities, the global contamination resulting from nuclear warfare and the more subtle aspects of passing radioactive waste to future generations. Such problems, it would seem, should be discussed in a general framework of social values, including the values associated with not restricting the possibilities for future generations to make their own choices, by...


Pally woody biomass, supplied over 90 of U.S. energy and fuel needs, after which biomass consumption began to decrease as fossil fuels became the preferred energy resources. For many years, a safe illuminant had been sought as a less expensive substitute for whale oils. By the mid-1800s, distillation of coal oils yielded naphthas, coal oil kerosines, lubricants, and waxes, while liquid fuels were manufactured by the distillation of petroleum, asphalt, and bituminous shales. Coal slowly displaced biomass and became the primary energy resource until natural gas and oil began to displace coal. In 1816, the first gas company was established in Baltimore, and by 1859, more than 300 U.S. cities were lighted by gas. Natural gas was no longer a curiosity, but illuminating gas manufactured from coal by thermal gasification processes still ruled the burgeoning gas industry. Natural gas did not come to the fore until manufactured gas was widely adopted for cooking, space heating, water heating,...


Implosion is a quarterly magazine, funded by private subscription and generally oriented towards the lay reader. It was originally published by Aloys Kokaly from about 1958 and now runs to 127 issues. Kokaly also founded the Verein zur Forderung der Biotechnik e.V. (Association for the Advancement of Biotechnology) specifically for the research and evaluation of Viktor's theories and through Implosion to provide a platform for Viktor Schauberger's various writings, of which Kokaly had many originals due to his close association with Viktor Schauberger during World War II and the immediately post-war period.

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